Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study subjects

Demographic and clinical featuresControls (n=63)POAG (n=67)P values*
Age in years, mean (SD)67.2 (9.9)66.0 (8.6)0.46
Female sex, n (%)36 (57.1)41 (61.2)0.64
Caucasian race,† n (%)54 (91.5)56 (84.8)0.25
Pulse in beats/min,‡ mean (SD)65.3 (11.2)66.4 (10.8)0.56
Mean arterial pressure in mm Hg,§ mean (SD)92.8 (11.4)93.2 (12.6)0.85
Body mass index in kg/m2, mean (SD)27.3 (5.7)25.1 (3.7)0.011
Ever smoker (vs never), n (%)26 (41.9)31 (46.3)0.57
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)15 (23.8)5 (7.5)0.0098
Use of blood pressure medication, n (%)28 (44.4)20 (30.0)0.085
Use of systemic beta-blocker medication, n (%)13 (20.6)8 (11.9)0.18
Use of blood thinning medication, n (%)29 (46.0)23 (34.3)0.17
Connective tissue disease,¶ n (%)14 (22.2)14 (21.0)0.85
Family history of glaucoma,** n (%)038 (57.6)
Intraocular pressure at recruitment in mm Hg, mean (SD)14.6 (2.0)14.0 (4.7)0.29
Maximum intraocular pressure in mm Hg,†† mean (SD)NA23.9 (7.9)
Central corneal thickness in μm,‡‡ mean (SD)NA538.0 (35.7)
Cup:disc ratio for worse eye, mean (SD)0.29 (0.10)0.82 (0.12)<0.0001
Number of glaucoma medication drops used in the worse eye plus oral glaucoma medication, mean (SD)02.1 (1.4)
Using topical beta-blocker medication in either eye, n (%)040 (59.7)
Humphrey visual field mean deviation of the worse eye in decibels, mean (SD)NA−9.37 (7.12)
Humphrey visual field pattern SD of the worse eye in decibels, mean (SD)NA8.12 (3.81)
  • *P values for continuous variables are from unpaired t-tests and for categorical variables are from χ2 tests.

  • †Categorised as Caucasian or other race. Race unknown on 4 controls and 1 patient with POAG.

  • ‡Pulse unknown on 2 controls and 4 patients with POAG.

  • §Mean arterial pressure unknown on 1 control and 1 patient with POAG.

  • ¶Includes osteoarthritis, gout, Sjogren's syndrome and unspecified types of arthritis. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and rheumatoid arthritis were not included.

  • **Family history unknown on 1 patient with POAG.

  • ††Maximum intraocular pressure unknown on 6 patients with POAG.

  • ‡‡Central corneal thickness of the eye with highest recorded intraocular pressure. Central corneal thickness unknown on 4 patients with POAG.

  • NA, not available; POAG, primary open-angle glaucoma.