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Epiblepharon in congenital glaucoma: case–control study
  1. Namju Kim1,
  2. Yung Ju Yoo2,3,
  3. Ho-Kyung Choung4,
  4. Sang In Khwarg3
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoungnam, Republic of Korea
  2. 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea
  3. 3 Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  4. 4 Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ho-Kyung Choung, Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, 20 Boramae-Ro 5-Gil, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; hokyung214{at}


Background/aims To assess the prevalence, clinical features and risk factors of lower lid epiblepharon among patients with congenital glaucoma.

Methods Cross-sectional, observational, case–control study. Patients diagnosed with congenital glaucoma between August 1999 and November 2014 were included. Demographic and clinical characteristic data were collected. Age-matched normal controls were recruited form general population. Main outcome measures were the prevalence, laterality and factors associated with epiblepharon in patients with congenital glaucoma.

Results The prevalence of lower lid epiblepharon was higher in patients with congenital glaucoma compared with control group (40.7% vs 13.3%, p<0.001). Unilateral epiblepharon was only shown in patients with congenital glaucoma (47.8% vs 0.0%, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that high intraocular pressure (IOP) at glaucoma diagnosis (OR=1.122), presence of corneal erosion (OR=82.664) and presence of buphthalmos (OR=12.600) were significantly associated with the presence of lower lid epiblepharon. In addition, unilateral epiblepharon was associated with unilateral buphthalmos and unilateral glaucoma (OR of 49.849 and 7.338, respectively).

Conclusions The prevalence of epiblepharon was higher in patients with congenital glaucoma compared with age-matched general population. In patients with congenital glaucoma, epiblepharon was associated with corneal erosions. In addition, buphthalmos and initial high IOP were associated with the development of lower lid epiblepharon. More importantly, unilateral buphthalmos was also significantly associated with unilateral epiblepharon. Therefore, in patients with congenital glaucoma, presence of epiblepharon should be evaluated especially in patients accompanying buphthalmos or corneal erosion.

  • Epiblepharon
  • congenital glaucoma
  • corneal erosion
  • buphthalmos

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  • Contributors Conceptualisation: NK, H-KC. Methodology: NK, H-KC. Formal analysis: NK, YJY. Investigation: NK, YJY. Writing (original draft preparation): NK, YJY. Writing (review and editing): H-KC, SIK. Supervision: SIK. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. NK and YJY contributed equally, and are the co-first authors for this paper.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Institutional Review Board of Seoul Municipal Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.