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ROCK inhibitors for the treatment of ocular diseases
  1. Ramin Nourinia1,
  2. Shintaro Nakao2,3,
  3. Souska Zandi3,4,
  4. Sare Safi1,
  5. Ali Hafezi-Moghadam3,
  6. Hamid Ahmadieh1
  1. 1 Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  2. 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
  3. 3 Center for Excellence in Functional and Molecular Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  4. 4 Swiss Eye Institute and Clinic for Vitreoretinal Diseases, Berner Augenklinik am Lindenhofspital, Bern, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hamid Ahmadieh, Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 16666, Iran; hahmadieh{at}


The Rho-kinase/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase) pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple ocular and systemic disorders. Recently, ROCK inhibitors have been suggested as novel treatments for various ocular diseases. Several in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of ROCK inhibitors in the management of ocular disorders such as corneal epithelial and endothelial damage, glaucoma, retinal and choroidal neovascularisation, diabetic macular oedema and optic nerve disorders. In this review, these studies are explored with focus on the relevant clinical investigations.

  • retina
  • cornea
  • glaucoma
  • neovascularisation
  • vitreous

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  • Contributors RN, AHM, HA: conceptualisation, methodology, writing–original draft preparation, writing–review and editing. SN, SZ: conceptualisation, methodology, writing–review and editing. SS: methodology, writing–review and editing.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.