Download PDFPDF
Review of extraocular muscle biopsies and utility of biopsy in extraocular muscle enlargement
Compose Response

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Author Information
First or given name, e.g. 'Peter'.
Your last, or family, name, e.g. 'MacMoody'.
Your email address, e.g.
Your role and/or occupation, e.g. 'Orthopedic Surgeon'.
Your organization or institution (if applicable), e.g. 'Royal Free Hospital'.
Statement of Competing Interests


  • Responses are moderated before posting and publication is at the absolute discretion of BMJ, however they are not peer-reviewed
  • Once published, you will not have the right to remove or edit your response. Removal or editing of responses is at BMJ's absolute discretion
  • If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patient's written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms]
  • By submitting this response you are agreeing to our full [Response terms and requirements]

Vertical Tabs

Other responses

Jump to comment:

  • Published on:
    Planning an extra-ocular muscle biopsy: a note of caution.
    • Luke Pratt, Foundation Year 2 Doctor Oxford Eye Hosptial, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford
    • Other Contributors:
      • Elizabeth Insull, Oculoplastic Fellow
      • Fintan Sheerin, Consultant Radiologist
      • Jonathan Norris, Consultant Ophthalmologist

    We read the excellent paper ‘Review of extraocular muscle biopsies and utility of biopsy in extraocular muscle enlargement’ by Eade et al.1 with great interest. The authors reviewed the pathology in extraocular muscle biopsies performed over a 25-year period and reported the clinical and radiological features that might distinguish between benign and malignant diseases. As the authors note, it is imperative for the orbital surgeon to consider a muscle biopsy when the diagnosis is in doubt. With this in mind we would like to highlight two relevant cases of simulated extraocular muscle enlargement seen radiologically due to deviated ocular position rather than a pathological process related to the muscle itself. In both cases this confused the clinical picture and nearly resulted in needless surgery.

    In case 1, a 42-year-old woman was referred to the oculoplastic clinic with diplopia, reduced vision in the right eye associated with retro-bulbar pain and facial paraesthesia. On examination, there was evidence of a right esotropia with a reduction of abduction (consistent with a 6th cranial nerve palsy) associated with reduced sensation involving the V1 and V2 distribution. Optic nerve function was normal. Investigations revealed an elevated serum IgG subclass 4 (1.18 g/L) and normal serum ACE. The MRI report confirmed increased girth of the right medial rectus muscle in conjunction with enlargement and pathological enhancement of right cavernous sinus extending into...

    Show More
    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.