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Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study
  1. Mark YZ Wong1,
  2. Ryan EK Man1,
  3. Preeti Gupta1,
  4. Charumathi Sabanayagam2,3,
  5. Tien Yin Wong4,5,
  6. Ching-Yu Cheng2,3,6,
  7. Ecosse Luc Lamoureux1,7
  1. 1 Health Services Research, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  2. 2 Ocular Epidemiology, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
  3. 3 Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
  4. 4 Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
  5. 5 Medical Director’s Office, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
  6. 6 Glaucoma Department, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore, Singapore
  7. 7 Academic Medicine Research Institute (AMRI), Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Professor Ecosse Luc Lamoureux, Singapore Eye Research Institute, 11 Third Hospital Ave, Singapore 168751, Singapore; ecosse.lamoureux{at}


Purpose To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore.

Methods We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls.

Results The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79–4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00–1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25–2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT.

Conclusions OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals.

  • Ocular trauma
  • Chinese population
  • Epidemiology
  • Injury

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  • Contributors MYZW and ELL: full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. T-YW, CS and C-YC: study concept and design.All authors: acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; and administrative, technical or material support. MYZW, REM, PG and ELL: drafting of the manuscript. MYZW and REM: statistical analysis. CS, T-YW and C-YC: obtained funding.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Patient consent was obtained through a consent form developed by the Singapore Eye Research Institute, and approved by the Singhealth Institutional Review Board (CIRB reference R498/47/2006).

  • Ethics approval Singhealth Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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