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Advances in dry eye imaging: the present and beyond
  1. Tommy C Y Chan1,2,
  2. Kelvin H Wan3,
  3. Kendrick C Shih4,
  4. Vishal Jhanji1,5
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
  2. 2 Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  3. 3 Department of Ophthalmology, Tuen Mun Eye Center and Tuen Mun Hospital, New Territories, Hong Kong
  4. 4 Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  5. 5 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Tommy C Y Chan, Departmentof Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong;{at}


New advances in imaging allow objective measurements for dry eye as well as define new parameters that cannot be measured by clinical assessment alone. A combination of these modalities provides unprecedented information on the static and dynamic properties of the structural and functional parameters in this multifactorial disease. A literature search was conducted to include studies investigating the use of imaging techniques in dry eye disease. This review describes the application of non-invasive tear breakup time, optical coherence tomography, meibomian gland imaging, interferometry, in vivo confocal microscopy, thermography and optical quality assessment for this condition.

  • tears
  • imaging
  • ocular surface
  • diagnostic tests/investigation

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  • TCYC and KHW contributed equally.

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the conception and design, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data. All authors contributed to the drafting, revising and final approval of the current study. All authors are accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.