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The association between ocular surface measurements with visual field reliability indices and gaze tracking results in preperimetric glaucoma
  1. Takahiro Arai,
  2. Hiroshi Murata,
  3. Masato Matsuura,
  4. Tomohiko Usui,
  5. Ryo Asaoka
  1. Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ryo Asaoka, Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan; rasaoka-tky{at}


Background/aims To investigate the relationship between gaze tracking (GT) results and ocular surface condition in glaucoma.

Method The Humphrey 24–2 visual field (VF) was measured in 34 eyes of 30 patients with open-angle glaucoma without VF damage. Tear break-up time, Schirmer’s test, tear meniscus volume (TMV) and presence of superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) were also measured in order to describe the condition of the ocular surface. Various GT parameters were calculated: the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 1° and 2° (move1-2), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 3° and 5° (move3-5), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus more than 6° (move≥6), the average tracking failure frequency per stimulus (TFF) and the average blinking frequency. The relationship between GT parameters, reliability indices and ocular surface measurements was investigated using linear mixed modelling.

Results SPK was positively associated with high rates of move3-5 (coefficient=0.12 for SPK+, p=0.003) and move≥6 (coefficient=0.052 for SPK+, p=0.023). High TMV was significantly related to TFF (coefficient=0.37, p=0.023). Fixation losses, false-positives and false-negatives were not significantly associated with any GT parameters or ocular surface measurements.

Conclusion SPK is associated with increased frequency of eye movements (move3-5 and move≥6). In addition, large TMV is associated with increased rate of TFF. Careful attention should be paid when interpreting GT parameters in patients with SPK or a large TMV.

  • gaze tracking
  • glaucoma
  • visual field
  • dry eye

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  • Contributors Conception or design of the work: RA, HM, TU. Acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: RA, HM, TU, TA, MM. Drafting the work or revising: RA, HM, TU, TA, MM. Final approval of the version published: RA, HM, TU, TA, MM.

  • Funding This work was supported by Grant 17K11418 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) CREST JPMJCR1304.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics Board of Tokyo University.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.