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Role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis
  1. Qian Chen1,2,
  2. Junxiang Gu1,2,
  3. Rui Jiang1,2,
  4. Min Zhou1,2,
  5. Qing Chang1,2
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  2. 2 Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  1. Correspondence to Professor Qing Chang, Department of Ophthalmology, Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, 83 Fenyang Rd, Shanghai, China; qngchang{at}


Purpose To investigate ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) characteristics of patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT) and to explore the role of UBM in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of OT.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Methods 78 eyes of 77 patients clinically consistent with OT and confirmed by serum and/or intraocular antibodies in a single tertiary centre (Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai) between July 2009 and July 2016 were included in the study. UBM was performed, and the outcomes were analysed.

Results Mean age of the patients included was 12.8±10.3 years. Positive UBM findings were observed in 72 of 78 eyes (92.3%). The primary imaging feature was peripheral granulomas (66 eyes; 84.6%), of which 78.5% were adjacent to the nasal or temporal side of horizontal meridian and 79.7% located on the surface of the ciliary body, presenting as olivary foci on radical section and botuliform foci on coronal section. Moreover, 12 of the peripherally involved eyes were accompanied with posterior pole granulomas, which could be termed ‘combined type’. Other UBM findings included vitreous strands (53 eyes; 67.9%), peripheral tractional retinal detachment (41 eyes; 52.6%) and tractional cyclodialysis (32 eyes; 41.0%).

Conclusions The utilisation of UBM verifies the existence of the combined subtype (with both peripheral and posterior pole granulomas) and improves the detection rate of peripheral granulomas, which is of great importance to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of OT.

  • Ocular toxocariasis
  • granuloma
  • ultrasound biomicroscopy

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  • Contributors QC and JG contributed equally to the manuscript. QC designed the study and collected and analysed the UBM data. The main part of the manuscript was drafted by JG and revised by QC and QCha. Clinical data were collected and added to the manuscript by RJ and MZ. Figures were selected and labelled by QC and JG. Supplementary data and documents were collected by JG.

  • Funding The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants no. 81371041). The funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ethic committee of Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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