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Tissue engineering of retina and Bruch’s membrane: a review of cells, materials and processes
  1. Yong Sheng Edgar Tan1,
  2. Pu Jiang Shi1,
  3. Chang-J Choo2,
  4. Augustinus Laude2,
  5. Wai Yee Yeong1
  1. 1 Singapore Centre of 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore
  2. 2 National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Professor Wai Yee Yeong, Singapore Centre of 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, Block N3, Singapore 639798 ; WYYeong{at}


The biological, structural and functional configuration of Bruch’s membrane (BM) is significantly relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other chorioretinal diseases, and AMD is one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The configuration may worsen along with the ageing of retinal pigment epithelium and BM that finally leads to AMD. Thus, the scaffold-based tissue-engineered retina provides an innovative alternative for retinal tissue repair. The cell and material requirements for retinal repair are discussed including cell sheet engineering, decellularised membrane and tissue-engineered membranes. Further, the challenges and potential in realising a whole tissue model construct for retinal regeneration are highlighted herein. This review article provides a framework for future development of tissue-engineered retina as a preclinical model and possible treatments for AMD.

  • treatment other
  • wound healing
  • retina

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  • Contributors All authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Funding This work was supported by Nanyang Technological University-National Healthcare Group Ageing Research Grant ARG/14009 and Nanyang Technological University Start-Up Grant (SUG).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement This work has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

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