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Topical ganciclovir treatment post-Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for patients with bullous keratopathy induced by cytomegalovirus

Abstract

Background/aims To investigate the efficacy of topical ganciclovir (GCV) for preventing disease recurrence and improving the surgical outcome post-Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) endotheliitis.

Methods This prospective, non-comparative case series study involved six eyes of six patients with endothelial decompensation due to CMV endotheliitis who underwent DSAEK, followed by a continuous, four to six times daily, topical administration of 0.5% GCV. Patient demographics, clinical history, and preoperative and postoperative examination (including any recurrence of CMV endotheliitis post-DSAEK), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), graft survival rate and endothelial cell density (ECD) were examined.

Results No recurrence of CMV endotheliitis was detected post-DSAEK. The mean follow-up period was 40 months (range, 12–60 months). The mean preoperative BCVA was 1.52±0.68 LogMAR (range, 0.52–2.40 LogMAR), yet it had significantly improved to 0.15±0.16 LogMAR (range: −0.08 to 0.30 LogMAR) by 1 year postoperative (P<0.01). In all patients, IOP was well controlled (10–20 mm Hg) postsurgery. The mean preoperative donor ECD was 2692±177 cells/mm2, and the mean postoperative ECD was 1974, 1771 and 1174 cells/mm2 for the ECD loss of 26%, 33% and 54% at 6, 12 and 36 months, respectively. No adverse effects were observed associated with the long-term topical administration of GCV.

Conclusion The continuous topical application of 0.5% GCV was found to be effective for preventing the recurrence of CMV endotheliitis, and it provided the optimal mid-term clinical outcomes post-DSAEK in patients with CMV endotheliitis.

Trial registration number UMIN000026746

  • cytomegalovirus endotheliitis
  • Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty
  • ganciclovir

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