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Posterior segment drug delivery for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular oedema
  1. Chee Wai Wong1,2,
  2. Tina T Wong2,3
  1. 1 Surgical Retina, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
  2. 2 Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
  3. 3 Glaucoma, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Professor Tina T Wong, Glaucoma, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore 168751, Singapore; tina.wong.t.l{at}


Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factors are used to treat a myriad of retinal conditions, including exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular oedema (DME) and diabetic retinopathy. Although effective, long-term efficacy is limited by the need for frequent and invasive intravitreal injections. The quest for sustained action therapeutics that can be delivered to target tissue in the least invasive manner is an arduous endeavour that has ended in premature failure for several technologies in Phase II or III trials. Nevertheless, there have been promising preclinical studies, and more are on the horizon: port delivery systems for the treatment of exudative AMD have entered Phase III trials and a wide array of preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential for nanoparticles, such as liposomes, dendrimers and cell penetrating peptides to deliver therapeutics into the posterior segment via minimally invasive routes. In this review, we discuss the challenges posed by ocular barriers for drug penetration and present the recent advancements of the most pertinent drug delivery platforms with a focus on the treatment of exudative AMD and DME.

  • drugs
  • macula
  • neovascularisation
  • retina
  • treatment medical
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  • Contributors CWW and TTW contributed to the study design, literature review, drafting and critical review of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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