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Circumscribed choroidal haemangioma: clinical and topographical features
  1. Jørgen Krohn1,2,
  2. Pukhraj Rishi3,
  3. Torbjørn Frøystein4,
  4. Arun D Singh5
  1. 1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  2. 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
  3. 3 Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  4. 4 Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
  5. 5 Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Jørgen Krohn, Department of Clinical Medicine, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Bergen, Bergen N-5021, Norway; jorgen.krohn{at}


Aims To characterise the clinical and topographical features of circumscribed choroidal haemangioma (CCH) and to visualise the patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus.

Methods Data on the size, shape and location of 113 CCH were converted into a database of two-dimensional retinal charts by means of computer drawing software. The extent of the tumours was visualised by merging the charts and displaying the number of overlapping tumours on colour-coded maps.

Results The mean largest tumour diameter was 7.2 mm (range, 2.5–11.0 mm), mean tumour height was 2.4 mm (range, 0.7–4.6 mm) and mean diameter/height ratio was 3.2 (range, 2.1–6.0). The mean distance from the posterior tumour margin to the foveola and optic disc margin was 1.7 mm (range, 0–15 mm) and 2.4 mm (range, 0–11 mm), respectively. The hemispheric location of the tumour centroid was temporal in 75 eyes (66%) and nasal in 38 (34%) (p=0.0005) and the distribution between the superior and inferior hemispheres was 68 (60%) and 45 (40%), respectively (p=0.03). The presence of subretinal fluid (SRF) was significantly associated with young age at diagnosis (p=0.0002), low tumour diameter/height ratio (p=0.0004), nasal hemisphere location (p=0.006) and close proximity to the optic disc (p=0.004).

Conclusions The superotemporal quadrant close to the macula is the most frequent location of CCH. The tumours are generally characterised by a diameter/height ratio of >2. Tumours in young patients, with marked elevation, in nasal hemisphere and in proximity to the optic disc are associated with SRF exudation.

  • circumscribed choroidal haemangioma
  • topography
  • distribution
  • location
  • imaging

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  • Contributors JK and ADS planned and designed the study. JK drafted the manuscript, and all authors contributed to data acquisition and analysis, revision of the manuscript and approval of the final version.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, Western Norway and the Institutional Review Boards of Cleveland Clinic and Vision Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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