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Utility of CLOCK CHART binocular edition for self-checking the binocular visual field in patients with glaucoma


Background/aims Car accidents caused by drivers unaware of their visual field (VF) defects under binocular vision have become an issue. We developed a simple self-check chart (CLOCK CHART binocular edition (CCBE)) to help patients with glaucoma recognise their abnormalities in the binocular VF and evaluated its usefulness.

Methods The chart has four targets displayed at 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° eccentricities. The examinee gradually rotates the chart 360° clockwise. At every 30°, the examinee confirms the fixation and indicates if all four targets can be seen. This study enrolled 88 eyes of 44 patients with glaucoma (mean age, 64.4±13.1 years) and 64 eyes of 32 visually normal individuals (mean age, 32.0±8.4 years). Except the CCBE test, static VF testing using the Humphrey field analyser (HFA) Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm-Standard 30-2 and binocular Esterman programmes was also performed for the subjects with glaucoma.

Results VF abnormality was defined as two or more contiguous points with a sensitivity of <10 dB within the central 30°. The CCBE test had sensitivities of 85% and 82% with respect to the HFA and Esterman results, respectively. We also used the British VF standards for Group 1 (car/motorcycle) drivers, and a sensitivity of 88% was obtained for the CCBE. The chart had a specificity of 100% for the visually normal subjects.

Conclusion The CCBE test enables drivers with glaucoma to notice their VF abnormalities under binocular condition. The application of this simple self-check method appears promising for occasions such as driver licensing.

  • self-check screening
  • binocular edition
  • binocular visual field
  • glaucoma
  • binocular Esterman

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