Studies have confirmed that optic disc haemorrhage (ODH) is a significant risk factor for the development and progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Various populations have differing risk factors for developing POAG. As such, a literature review was conducted examining seven studies published in India, China, Japan, Australia, Korea and the USA. The goal of this review was to better identify ODH risk factors and their relationship to development and progression of POAG. Ultimately, patients with ODH have a greater risk for developing POAG across all populations analysed in this review. However, some populations demonstrated additional risk factors for ODH, such as increasing age and female gender. Paradoxically, data from several studies show that people of African descent have a reduced risk of ODH despite having increased risk of open-angle glaucoma than their Caucasian counterparts. By parsing out the complex relations between ODH and open-angle glaucoma stratified by age, gender and race, we may gain a broader understanding of glaucoma pathogenesis and derive individualised treatment strategies.
- optic nerve
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Funding The contribution of the author ACV Vercellin was supported by Fondazione Roma and by the Italian Ministry of Health.
Disclaimer The views expressed in this article in this paper are the author’s own, and not those of the institutions represented.
Competing interests AH would like to disclose that he receives remuneration from AdOM for serving as a consultant and a board member, and from Thea for a speaking engagement. AH also holds an ownership interest in AdOM, Luseed, Oxymap and QuLent. LRP would like to disclose that he on the advisory Boards for Eyenovia, Emerald Bioscience, Nicox and Bausch + Lomb. He also consults for Verily.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.