Purpose To compare the foveal microvascular structure characteristics in children with a history of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) versus laser photocoagulation (LP) for retinopathy of prematurity by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 17 children (28 eyes) underwent IVR and 20 children (37 eyes) underwent LP were recruited. The age of doing OCTA examination of the two groups are 5.4±1.1 years and 6.3±1.8 years, respectively (p=0.07). Spectral-domain OCTA was performed for all the eyes with a scan size of 3×3 mm. The data of the superficial retinal layer were analysed. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and vessel density (including vessel length density (VLD) and perfusion density (PD)) were measured using the software of OCTA (Cirrus AngioPlex 5000, Carl Zeiss, Meditec, Dubin, California, USA). The central foveal thicknesses (CFT) were measured by cross-sectional OCT.
Results In the central fovea, the retinal VLD and PD of patients with IVR were 13.82±2.99 mm/mm2 and 0.25±0.05 mm2/mm2, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the LP group (15.64±2.71 mm/mm2 and 0.28±0.05 mm2/mm2, p=0.01 and p=0.006). The FAZ area of patients with IVR and LP were 0.13±0.09 mm2 and 0.09±0.07 mm2, respectively (p=0.048). The CFT of patients with IVR and LP were 200.7±16.7 µm and 220.9±22.7 µm, respectively (p<0.01). The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity of patients with IVR and LP were 0.2±0.1 and 0.1±0.1, respectively (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the parafoveal and foveal VLD and PD, FAZ morphological index and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) between the two groups.
Conclusion The IVR might contribute to microvascular changes in the macular zone, such as reducing the central foveal VLD and PD, while the LP might contribute to microstructural changes, such as smaller FAZ and thicker CFT.
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Contributors JZ and ZW contributed equally to this work. JZ and ZW contributed to the conception of the study. JZ, ZW and GZ performed the data analyses and wrote the manuscript. WL, JZ and FZ helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions. MY, LC, LZ and JW contributed significantly to analysis and manuscript preparation. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Funding This work was supported by the Basic Discipline Layout Foundation of the Shenzhen Science and Innovation Commission. P.R.China (grant no. JCYJ20170817112542555).
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Parental/guardian consent obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request. We can provide the data of this study.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.