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We have read the review article entitled “Ocular complications of cat scratch disease” Johnson A. Br J Ophthalmol 2020;0:1-7. We want to congratulate the author for this important review article, and make some contributions.
In the review article, it has been indicated that optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is of value to monitoring cat scratch disease (CSD), particularly for neuroretinitis and multifocal retinitis.
We would like to highlight a feature of focal retinitis with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Small areas of retinitis, less than 500 microns in diameter, can be seen on OCT imaging. These appear as areas of focal hyper-reflectivity of the inner retinal layers and decreased reflectivity causing a shadow on the outer retinal layers and choroid. This was seen in two patients presenting to our service recently with Bartonella henselae CSD diagnosed clinically and confirmed by positive serology.
The first case was a 49-year-old Caucasian male who presented with bilateral inflammatory papillitis and multifocal retinitis without a macular star, confirmed with serology as Bartonella henselae (IgG >2048). He had good presenting Snellen visual acuities of 6/5 right, 6/6 left. OCT imaging at acute presentation showed multifocal retinitis seen as small areas retinal hyper-reflectivity of the inner retina with outer retinal disruption. The disease resolved without treatment in 8 months, with...
The first case was a 49-year-old Caucasian male who presented with bilateral inflammatory papillitis and multifocal retinitis without a macular star, confirmed with serology as Bartonella henselae (IgG >2048). He had good presenting Snellen visual acuities of 6/5 right, 6/6 left. OCT imaging at acute presentation showed multifocal retinitis seen as small areas retinal hyper-reflectivity of the inner retina with outer retinal disruption. The disease resolved without treatment in 8 months, with final Snellen visual acuities of 6/5 right and 6/6 left.
An area of retinitis was also demonstrated in a 9-year-old Caucasian girl with CSD. CSD was confirmed with positive serologic testing for Bartonella henselae (IgG >2048, IgM <20). She presented with a four-day history of reduced vision in her left eye and a gastrointestinal illness, and had recently been scratched by a stray kitten. She developed bilateral neuroretinitis with presenting Snellen visual acuities of 6/6 right and count fingers left. A small area of juxtafoveal retinitis was demonstrated on OCT in her right eye as inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, casting a shadow on the outer retina and underlying choroid. She was treated with oral doxycycline, oral rifampicin and oral prednisone. After two weeks treatment the focal retinitis was smaller but with persistent loss of inner retinal architecture and shadowing the outer retinal and choroid, and this area had reduced further after 36 days with visualization of the outer retina and choroid in the affected area.
There are few studies documenting OCT findings in CSD. Most common findings include flattening of the foveal contour, thickening of the neurosensory retina and the presence of subretinal fluid associated with neuroretinitis. Exudate associated with neuroretinitis appears as multiple hyper-reflective foci in the outer plexiform layer and can lead to disruption and loss of the external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone and interdigitation zone.
To our knowledge only two other paper have described the OCT finding of focal retinitis.[4,5] This OCT sign can persist for months but with gradual decreased reflectivity of the lesion and improved visualization of outer retina as the disease resolves.
1. Ksiaa I, Abroug N, Mahmoud A, Zina S, Hedayatfar A, Attia S, Khochtali S, Khairallah M. Update on Bartonella neuroretinitis. Journal of Current Ophthalmology. 2019;31:254-61.
2. Habot-Wilner Z, Zur D, Goldstein M, Goldenberg D, Shulman S, Kesler A, Giladi M, Neudorfer M. Macular findings on optical coherence tomography in cat-scratch disease neuroretinitis. Eye. 2011;25:1064-8.
3. Mello LGM, Lima LH, Cabral T, Rodrigues MZ, Pecanha PM, Belfort R. Bartonella Quintana-associated neuroretinitis: longitudinal spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic findings. Retinal Cases & Brief Reports. 2016;0:1-6.
4. Empeslidis T, Tsauousis KT, Konidaris V, Pradeep A, Deane J. Multifocal chorioretinitis caused by Bartonella henselae: imaging findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography during treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eye. 2014;28:907-9.
5. Pichi F, Srivastava S, Levinson A, Baynes KM, Traut C, Lowder CY. A focal chorioretinal Bartonella lesion analyzed by optical coherence tomography angiography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:585-8.