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Foveal microvasculature, refractive errors, optical biometry and their correlations in school-aged children with retinopathy of prematurity after intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors or laser photocoagulation

Abstract

Aims To compare the differences and to assess the correlations regarding to foveal microvasculature, refractive errors and optical biometry in children with history of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with either laser photocoagulation or intravitreal injection of antivascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF).

Methods This is a retrospective and comparative case series. Measurements of fovea microvasculature included the retinal thickness and subfoveal choroid thickness, the size of fovea avascular zone (FAZ), the fovea, parafovea and perifoveal vessel density (VD). Measurements of refractive errors and optical biometry included spherical equivalent, astigmatism, cornea curvature, anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness and axial length (AXL).

Results A total 47 eyes in 25 children were studied (22 laser-treated eyes from 12 children and 25 anti-VEGF treated eyes from 13 children). Laser-treated eyes had significantly smaller FAZ (p=0.004), higher fovea VD, lower parafoveal VD (p=0.02 and 0.01 in superficial capillary plexus; p=0.05 and 0.01 in deep capillary plexus), thicker inner retinal thickness (p=0.002). Laser-treated eyes had significantly higher degree of myopia (p=0.01). Regarding to optical biometry, laser-treated eyes had significant steeper cornea curvature, shallower ACD and thicker lens (p=0.01, 0.01 and 0.02, respectively) but no differences in AXL was noted (p=0.58). Significant correlations presented between inner retina thickness and FAZ to anterior segment variables.

Conclusion In school-aged children with history of type 1 ROP, despite similar visual acuity outcome, those who underwent anti-VEGF injection had favourable developmental outcomes compared with laser photocoagulation. Significant correlations exist between fovea microvasculature and optical biometric components.

  • antivascular endothelial growth factors
  • fovea microvasculature
  • laser photocoagulation
  • optical biometry
  • refractive error
  • retinopathy of prematurity

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