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Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome: a review
  1. David Amaro1,
  2. Ester Carreño2,
  3. Laura R. Steeples3,
  4. Filipa Oliveira-Ramos4,5,
  5. Carlos Marques-Neves1,6,
  6. Inês Leal1,6
  1. 1 Centro de Estudos das Ciências da Visão, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
  2. 2 Hospital Universitario Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain
  3. 3 Manchester Royal Eye Hospital and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
  4. 4 Rheumathology Department, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisboa, Portugal
  5. 5 Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
  6. 6 Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisboa, Portugal
  1. Correspondence to Dr Inês Leal, Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de Santa Maria, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal; ines.leal{at}


Inflammation of renal interstitium and uveal tissue establishes the two components of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome. Although believed to occur more frequently in young females, a broad spectrum of patients can be affected. Both renal and eye disease can be asymptomatic and may not manifest simultaneously, having independent progressions. Renal disease manifests as acute kidney injury and may cause permanent renal impairment. Eye inflammation can manifest in different anatomical forms, most commonly as bilateral anterior uveitis and may progress to a chronic course. TINU syndrome accounts for approximately 1%–2% of uveitis in tertiary referral centres. A literature review covering the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment is presented.

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  • Contributors IL and CMN devised the project. DA collected information and participated in drafting the manuscript with IL. All authors revised critically the article for important clinical content and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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