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Classifying juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma using cluster analysis
  1. Shweta Birla1,
  2. Dinesh Gupta1,
  3. Bindu I Somarajan2,
  4. Shikha Gupta2,
  5. Abadh Kishore Chaurasia2,
  6. Azmira Kishan2,
  7. Viney Gupta2
  1. 1 Translational Bioinformatics Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Delhi, India
  2. 2 Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Viney Gupta, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India; gupta_v20032000{at}; Dr Dinesh Gupta; dinesh{at}


Aim To classify unrelated patients with juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG) into clinically useful phenotypes using cluster analysis.

Methods Out of the 527 unrelated patients with JOAG, the study included 414 patients who had all the phenotypic characteristics required for the study. A cluster analysis was performed to classify the patients based on their iris and angle morphology, age of onset, highest untreated intraocular pressure (IOP), worst mean deviation and greatest vertical cup disc ratio of the worst eye. The iris features were broadly classified into three groups: those with normal iris crypts (NIC), those with prominent iris crypts (PIC) and those with absence of iris crypts. The gonio photographs were graded as normal appearing angle or those with angle dysgenesis in the form of a featureless angle, one with a high iris insertion and an angle with prominent iris processes. Using a hierarchical clustering model and a two-way cluster analysis, the distribution of clusters of JOAG was analysed to obtain a classification of JOAG subtypes.

Results The four major clusters identified were: Cluster 1 with NIC and normal angles had the lowest untreated IOP and higher age of onset among all clusters. Cluster 2 with NIC and featureless angle was found to be associated with earliest age of onset. Cluster 3 had NIC and either a high iris insertion or prominent iris processes. Cluster 4 was a heterogeneous cluster with maximum number of patients in a group comprising of those with PIC and high iris insertion.

Conclusions Cluster analysis extracted four subgroups of the JOAG phenotype that have clinical and prognostic significance and can potentially be helpful while evaluating these patients in the clinics.

  • Angle
  • Glaucoma
  • Intraocular pressure

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  • DG and VG contributed equally.

  • Funding SB is a recipient of National Post Doctoral Fellowship funded by SERB,DST (PDF/2017/001326).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication An informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all patients and parents of those less than 18 years of age.

  • Ethics approval Approved by the local institutional ethics committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on request.

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