Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Association between age-related macular degeneration and subjective cognitive complaints


Purpose To investigate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) in the USA.

Methods A total of 5604 participants aged 40 years and older from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. Retinal photography was graded into no AMD, early and late AMD based on the modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. SCCs were based on the self-reported difficulty in remembering or confusion. Sample weights were used to generate nationally representative data. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between AMD severity and SCCs, controlling for potential confounders.

Results Participants with any AMD had higher prevalence of SCCs relative to participants without AMD (6.8% vs 13.6%, p<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, presence of any AMD was significantly associated with 1.62-fold higher odds of having SCCs (95% CI 1.16 to 2.27, p=0.007). Similarly, participants with early (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.17, p=0.007) and late AMD (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.08 to 3.79, p=0.030) were also associated with elevated odds of reporting SCCs after controlling for confounders.

Conclusions We found significant associations between AMD severity and SCCs in this US population. More attention should be paid on the subjective memory function and potential risk of cognitive decline among patients with AMD.

  • epidemiology

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.