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Intraocular pressure–lowering medications during pregnancy and risk of neonatal adverse outcomes: a propensity score analysis using a large database


Background/Aims To investigate the association between exposure to intraocular pressure (IOP)–lowering medications during pregnancy and neonatal adverse outcomes.

Methods This retrospective, cohort study used the JMDC Claims Database (JMDC, Tokyo, Japan), 2005–2018. We extracted data on pregnant women with glaucoma, including dispensation of (1) any IOP-lowering medications, (2) only prostaglandin analogues (PGs) and 3) only beta-blockers, during the first trimester. We compared frequency of congenital anomalies (CA), preterm birth (PB), low birth weight (LBW) and the composite outcome of these three measures, between the women with and without IOP-lowering medications. We calculated propensity scores (PSs) using logistic regression in which use of IOP-lowering medications was regressed against known confounders (disorders during pregnancy and other chronic comorbidities). We then conducted logistic regression in which neonatal adverse outcomes were regressed against use of IOP-lowering medications with adjustment for the PS.

Results We identified 826 eligible women, 91 (11%) of whom had received any IOP-lowering medications. CA occurred in 9.9% and 6.4%, PB in 2.2% and 4.5%, LBW in 9.9% and 6.0% and composite outcome in 17.6% and 13.3% of mothers with and without IOP-lowering medications, respectively. After adjustment for PS, IOP-lowering medications were not significantly associated with more frequent CA (adjusted OR (aOR), 1.43; 95% CI, 0.66 to 3.12), PB (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.97), LBW (aOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 0.98 to 4.57) or composite outcome (aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.78 to 2.53). Results were similar regarding PGs only and beta-blockers only.

Conclusions IOP-lowering medications during the first trimester were not significantly associated with increase in CA, PB or LBW.

  • Glaucoma
  • Epidemiology
  • Drugs

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