Background/aims While cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis (AU) patients often require glaucoma surgery, the effectiveness of systemic anti-viral in long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control is not well established. Our study aims to identify the 2-year efficacy and safety of oral valganciclovir in CMV AU with uncontrolled IOP.
Methods In this retrospective case series, one eye from each of 17 immunocompetent PCR-proven patients with CMV AU who received a single course of oral valganciclovir for 20–148 days for medically uncontrolled IOP during 2008–2018 were identified. They were examined at baseline, week 2, months 1, 2 and 3, then every 3 months up to 2 years after commencement of valganciclovir, or until IOP-lowering procedure.
Results Median baseline IOP and IOP-lowering medication were 27.0 mm Hg (IQR: 22.9–31.0 mm Hg), and 4.0, respectively. IOP was significantly lower than baseline from 2 weeks to 12 months and at 21 and 24 months after starting valganciclovir (p=0.001 to 0.041, Wilcoxon sign-rank test), with 16.9–46.0% median IOP reduction. Seven (41.2%) and six (35.3%) patients had IOP≤21 mm Hg with same, or reduced, topical medications by 12 and 24 months, respectively. Median time to IOP-lowering intervention or second course of valganciclovir was 12.4 months. There was no serious medication-related adverse event. Common side effects included reduced monocyte count (9 patients) and deranged renal function/electrolytes (5 patients). IOP spike and wound leak occurred in 35.5% and 29.4% of patients, respectively, after diagnostic aqueous tap.
Conclusion In CMV AU with uncontrolled IOP, >1/3 of the patients avoided glaucoma surgery over 2 years with a course of oral valganciclovir.
- Treatment Medical
- Intraocular pressure
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Contributors MOMW: conception, design, collecting data, drafting the article, analysis and interpretation of data. AHYY: collecting data, drafting the article. CKMC: design, drafting the article. MOMW, AHYY and CKMC were all involved in revising the article critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplemental information.