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Efficacy and safety of oral valganciclovir in cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis with uncontrolled intraocular pressure

Abstract

Background/aims While cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis (AU) patients often require glaucoma surgery, the effectiveness of systemic anti-viral in long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control is not well established. Our study aims to identify the 2-year efficacy and safety of oral valganciclovir in CMV AU with uncontrolled IOP.

Methods In this retrospective case series, one eye from each of 17 immunocompetent PCR-proven patients with CMV AU who received a single course of oral valganciclovir for 20–148 days for medically uncontrolled IOP during 2008–2018 were identified. They were examined at baseline, week 2, months 1, 2 and 3, then every 3 months up to 2 years after commencement of valganciclovir, or until IOP-lowering procedure.

Results Median baseline IOP and IOP-lowering medication were 27.0 mm Hg (IQR: 22.9–31.0 mm Hg), and 4.0, respectively. IOP was significantly lower than baseline from 2 weeks to 12 months and at 21 and 24 months after starting valganciclovir (p=0.001 to 0.041, Wilcoxon sign-rank test), with 16.9–46.0% median IOP reduction. Seven (41.2%) and six (35.3%) patients had IOP≤21 mm Hg with same, or reduced, topical medications by 12 and 24 months, respectively. Median time to IOP-lowering intervention or second course of valganciclovir was 12.4 months. There was no serious medication-related adverse event. Common side effects included reduced monocyte count (9 patients) and deranged renal function/electrolytes (5 patients). IOP spike and wound leak occurred in 35.5% and 29.4% of patients, respectively, after diagnostic aqueous tap.

Conclusion In CMV AU with uncontrolled IOP, >1/3 of the patients avoided glaucoma surgery over 2 years with a course of oral valganciclovir.

  • Glaucoma
  • Infection
  • Treatment Medical
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Inflammation

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