Purpose To investigate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings in recurrent type 3 macular neovascularisation (MNV).
Methods In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with type 3 MNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration underwent OCT-A at three different time points: baseline, after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment with complete resolution of the exudative signs (ie, non-exudative stage) and at the recurrence of exudation (ie, recurrence stage). Demographics and clinical findings were analysed, including OCT-A features of type 3 MNV recurrence.
Results Twelve eyes (12 patients, mean age 78±7 years) were included. Using OCT-A, at baseline all type 3 MNVs showed the presence of detectable flow downgrowing from the deep vascular complex (DVC) to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/sub-RPE space. 6/12 eyes (50%) showed anomalous flow under the RPE, while the other 6 eyes showed flow reaching the RPE without anomalous flow in the sub-RPE space. At the non-exudative stage (after treatment), BCVA and CMT significantly improved (p=0.004 and p=0.036), and flow inside the retinal lesions reduced; interestingly the connection to the RPE/sub-RPE space regressed. At the time of recurrence, all type 3 MNVs showed the presence of intra/sub-retinal exudation with restoration of the flow deepening from the DVC to the RPE/sub-RPE space.
Conclusions Detectable flow deepening from the DVC to the RPE/sub-RPE space using OCT-A is mandatory to have a new exudation secondary to recurrent type 3 MNV. Early detection of type 3 MNV recurrence by OCT-A characterisation may prompt retreatment and potentially prevent progression to late stages of the disease.
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Contributors RS, MB, GQ: research design, data acquisition and analysis, interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript and critical revision of the manuscript. EB, AM, EC, VC: data acquisition and analysis, critical revision of the manuscript. LQ, EHS, FB: interpretation of data and critical revision of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests RS, EB and VC are consultants for ZEISS (Dublin, USA). FB is a consultant for: Alcon (Fort Worth,Texas,USA), Alimera Sciences (Alpharetta, Georgia, USA), Allergan Inc (Irvine, California, USA), Farmila-Thea (Clermont-Ferrand, France), Bayer Shering-Pharma (Berlin, Germany), Bausch + Lomb (Rochester, New York, USA), Genentech (San Francisco, California, USA), Hoffmann-La-Roche (Basel, Switzerland), Novagali Pharma (Évry, France), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), Sanofi-Aventis (Paris, France), Thrombogenics (Heverlee,Belgium), Zeiss (Dublin, USA). EHS is a consultant for: Allergan Inc (Irvine, California, USA), Bausch + Lomb (Rochester, New York, USA), Bayer Shering-Pharma (Berlin, Germany), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland). GQ is a consultant for: Alimera Sciences (Alpharetta, Georgia, USA), Allergan Inc (Irvine, California, USA), Amgen (Thousand Oaks, USA), Bayer Shering-Pharma (Berlin, Germany), Heidelberg (Germany), KBH (Chengdu; China), LEH Pharma (London, UK), Lumithera (Poulsbo, USA), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), Sandoz (Berlin, Germany), Sifi (Catania, Italy), Sooft-Fidea (Abano, Italy), ZEISS (Dublin, USA).
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. Data are available upon request from GQ (email@example.com).