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Low-cost, smartphone-based frequency doubling technology visual field testing using a head-mounted display
  1. Karam AlRahman Alawa1,
  2. Ryan P Nolan1,
  3. Elaine Han1,
  4. Alejandro Arboleda2,
  5. Heather Durkee2,
  6. Mohamed S Sayed1,
  7. Mariela C Aguilar2,
  8. Richard K Lee1
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
  2. 2 Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Richard K Lee, Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, Florida, USA; RLee{at}


Background Current visual field screening machines are bulky and expensive, limiting their accessibility, affordability and use. We report the design and evaluation of a novel, portable, cost-effective system for glaucoma screening using smartphone-based visual field screening using frequency doubling technology (FDT) and a head-mounted display.

Methods Nineteen eyes of 10 subjects with new-onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma were tested and compared with the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the newly developed Mobile Virtual Perimetry (MVP) FDT with the C-20 testing pattern. Mann-Whitney, Bland-Altman and linear regression analyses were performed to assess statistical difference, agreement and correlation, respectively, between the two devices.

Results The average age of the participants was 58±15 years. No statistically significant difference was found between the MVP FDT and the Humphrey Zeiss FDT (p>0.05). Bland-Altman and linear regression analyses demonstrated good agreement and correlation between the two devices.

Conclusion The MVP FDT is a low-cost, portable visual field screening device that produces comparable results to the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and may be used as an easily accessible screening tool for glaucoma.

  • Glaucoma
  • Field of vision
  • Telemedicine

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  • Contributors KAA, MSS, AA, HD, MCA and RKL were responsible for conception and design of the study. KAA, RPN and EH were responsible for data collection. KAA was responsible for data analysis and interpretation. KAA was responsible for drafting the article. All authors were responsible for revisions and final approval of the article.

  • Funding RKL is supported by the Walter G. Ross Foundation. The Bascom Palmer Eye Institute is supported by NIH Center Core Grant P30EY014801 and a Research to Prevent Blindness Unrestricted Grant.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval A prospective study approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (ID# 20150968) was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on request.

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