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Low systemic vitamin D as a potential risk factor in primary open-angle glaucoma: a review of current evidence
  1. Brandon Huynh1,
  2. Peter Shah2,3,4,5,
  3. Freda Sii2,3,
  4. Damien Hunter6,7,
  5. Nicole Carnt6,8,
  6. Andrew White8,9,10,11,12,13
  1. 1 Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia
  2. 2 Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
  3. 3 Birmingham Institute for Glaucoma Research, Institute of Translational Medicine, Birmingham, UK
  4. 4 University College London, London, UK
  5. 5 Centre for Health and Social Care Improvement, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK
  6. 6 Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, Australia
  7. 7 Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  8. 8 School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  9. 9 Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  10. 10 Department of Ophthalmology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia
  11. 11 Community Eye Care Centre, Western Sydney, Australia
  12. 12 Sydney Medical School, Westmead Institute, Sydney, Australia
  13. 13 Sydney Medical School, Save Sight Institute, Sydney, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Brandon Huynh, Westmead Hospital, Cnr Hawkesbury Road and Darcy Road, Westmead 2145, Australia; b.huynh{at}


Currently, intraocular pressure is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma; thus, identifying other modifiable determinants may have far-reaching outcomes. There has been increasing interest in vitamin D status and glaucoma pathogenesis as low vitamin D has been identified by some studies as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Although the exact mechanism of vitamin D in glaucoma remains uncertain, there is sufficient evidence to continue research in this area. There is a potential physiological role for vitamin D as an anti-inflammatory agent in the oxidative stress-driven pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma, and further studies are required to evaluate the temporal and causal relationship. Ocular vitamin D status in the tear, aqueous and vitreous fluid is a prospective gap in research.

  • Colour vision
  • Glaucoma
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Optic Nerve
  • Genetics
  • Immunology
  • Contact lens
  • Epidemiology
  • Infection

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  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.