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Plague rampant: two sides of the coin
  1. Ludwig M Heindl1,
  2. Vincent Michel Borderie2
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany
  2. 2 Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, Paris, France
  1. Correspondence to Professor Ludwig M Heindl, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Koln 50937, Germany; Ludwig.heindl.BJO{at}

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In 2021, SARS-CoV-2 has changed our lives permanently in some way. As ancient Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu said, ‘Good fortune hides in disaster; Disaster lurks within good fortune’. In this global health crisis, we may have gained a better understanding of the body’s immune mechanisms while enhancing public health.

In the early stages of the outbreak, ophthalmology manifestations related to SARS-CoV-2 were noted.1–3 Ocular surface symptoms are common during COVID-19 and conjunctivitis is the primary ocular disorder associated with the disease.4 However, the viral load in the conjunctival epithelium is usually low and present only in the initial phase of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

After 1 year, immunisation against SARS-CoV-2 was rapidly introduced to limit the spread of the disease and reduce its associated morbidity and mortality.5 As a novel type of vaccine, the potential efficacy of mRNA vaccines in treating different types of malignant and infectious diseases was reported.6 However, the immune response and the long-term protective effects of vaccination to the SARS-CoV-2 virus remain unknown. Along with mass vaccinations, some concerns have arisen. …

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  • Contributors LMH and VMB conceived of the presented work. LMH drafted and VB critically revised the manuscript. LMH and VB both approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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