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Focal choroidal excavation: review of literature
  1. Saurabh Verma,
  2. Vinod Kumar,
  3. Shorya Azad,
  4. Amber Amar Bhayana,
  5. Abhidnya Surve,
  6. Suneel Kumar,
  7. Pulak Agarwal,
  8. Rohan Chawla,
  9. Pradeep Venkatesh
  1. Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Shorya Azad, Ophthalmology, AIIMS, Ansari, New Delhi 110029, India; shoryaazad{at}


Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) is defined as an area of concavity in choroid detected on optical coherence tomography. These are mostly present in macular region without evidence of accompanying scleral ectasia or posterior staphyloma. Though initially considered to be congenital, increasing number of cases have been identified in association with other choroidal pathologies such as central serous choroidopathy, choroidal neovascularisation, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, choroiditis, choroidal tumours. In this review article, we aim to elaborate on the morphology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of FCE and specifically discuss the spectrum of diseases with known association along with the impact of their treatment on FCE

  • Imaging
  • Inflammation
  • Retina
  • Neovascularisation
  • Macula

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  • Contributors SV: manuscript preparation; SA: editing and finalisation of manuscript; AAB, AS, SK, PA: image acquisition; VK, RC, PV: image interpretation and editing.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Informed consent was obtained from all the patients. Consent for publication was obtained from all the authors and patients.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.