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Retinal ultra-wide-field colour imaging versus dilated fundus examination to screen for sickle cell retinopathy

Abstract

Purpose To compare ultra-wide-field colour fundus imaging (UWFI) to dilated fundus examination (DFE) for the screening of sickle cell retinopathy (SCR).

Design This study is a prospective, blinded, multicentre case series.

Participants This study included two groups: an adult group (n=268 eyes) and a paediatric group (n=168 eyes). Sickle cell disease (SCD) types included haemoglobin S homozygous (HbSS), haemoglobin S and C (HbSC) and Hb S with β-thalassaemia (HbSß-Thal).

Methods Participants underwent DFE and UWFI. Each eye received three independent grades (1–4), documented by three graders: clinical grader, image grader 1 and image grader 2. Three clinically relevant diagnostic thresholds were determined. Based on these thresholds, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for all three graders were calculated relative to each other as reference tests.

Results HbSC was associated with the most advanced SCR grades. When compared to the clinical grader, image grader 1 and image grader 2 consistently detected more SCR and higher SCR grades in both adult and paediatric groups. In both groups, image grader 1 and image grader 2 identified twice as many cases of capillary occlusion/anastomosis than clinical grader. To detect the presence of any proliferative SCR, image grader 1 and image grader 2 had a sensitivity of 82%, 71% in the paediatrics group and 90% and 72% in the adult group. The clinical grader sensitivity was 52% in the paediatrics group and 53% in the adult group.

Conclusion The UWFI is a sensitive tool to screen for SCR. It is superior to DFE in detecting capillary occlusion or anastomosis.

  • Epidemiology
  • Retina
  • Clinical Trial
  • Child health (paediatrics)

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