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Highlights from this issue
  1. Frank Larkin, Editor in Chief
  1. Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Prof Frank Larkin, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, EC1V 2PD, UK; f.larkin{at}

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Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of strabismus in a Chinese population-based cohort of pre-school children: the Nanjing eye study (see page 1203)

The prevalence of strabismus at baseline (3 years old) was 2.48% and the annual incidence of strabismus during follow-up (3-5 years old) was 1.78%. Parental strabismus history and prematurity were associated with both prevalence and incidence of strabismus.

What can anisometropia tell us about eye growth? (see page 1211)

In young children, the presence of small degrees of anisometropia is associated with impaired emmetropisation, suggesting that, in addition to environmental and genetic influences on eye growth, stochastic processes contribute to refractive development.

The prevalence and risk factors of pseudomyopia in a Chinese children population: Anyang childhood eye study (see page 1216)

This cohort study revealed that pseudomyopia is more prevalent in younger and more hyperopic children, while no association between pseudomyopia and time spent in near-work or myopic progression was found.

Ocular surface biopsies of xeroderma pigmentosum patients in the United Kingdom: a retrospective observational case series (see page 1222)

This study documents the largest series of ocular surface biopsies in xeroderma pigmentosum patients and describes background histopathological changes, variation in findings between different complementation groups, and challenges in biopsy interpretation and management.

Deep learning algorithms to isolate and quantify the structures of the anterior segment in optical coherence tomography images (see page 1231)

Deep neural networks enable fast and accurate automated isolation and quantification of important intraocular dimensions in anterior segment of the eye in optical coherence tomography images.

Amniotic membrane transplantation for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: the Toronto experience (see page 1238)

Amniotic membrane transplantation during the acute ocular involvement of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis reduces severity of chronic complications. However, patients need to be monitored long-term as chronic sequelae can still occur.

The impact of anxiety and depression on progression to glaucoma among glaucoma suspects (see page 1244)

A history of anxiety or both anxiety and depression upon becoming a glaucoma suspect is associated with progression to a diagnosis of glaucoma, even after controlling for measures of disease severity.

Factors influencing the outcome of goniotomy and trabeculotomy in primary congenital glaucoma (see page 1250)

Preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and cup-to-disc ratio influenced the outcome of goniotomy while trabeculotomy outcome is mostly influenced by initial IOP, gender, parental consanguinity, younger age at surgery, and corneal clarity

Long-term efficacy and tolerability of TNFα inhibitors in the treatment of non-infectious ocular inflammation: an 8-year prospective surveillance study (see page 1256)

43 patients on infliximab or adalimumab were followed over an 8 year period. 91% experienced remission which was followed by relapse in 53%. Switching TNF inhibitors is associated with disease control when initial agents fail. Adverse events were common but no new safety signals were detected.

Ophthalmic adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors: the ayo Clinic experience (see page 1263)

Immune checkpoint inhibitors cause a variety of ophthalmic immune-related adverse effects that range widely in severity. Most ophthalmic side effects can be treated with targeted therapy without discontinuation of life-prolonging immunotherapy.

Prediction of causative genes in inherited retinal disorder from fundus photography and autofluorescence imaging utilizing deep learning techniques (see page 1272)

A novel application of deep learning in the prediction of the causative inherited retinal disease genes from fundus photographs and FAF revealed a high prediction accuracy of over 80%.

Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in fellow eyes of choroidal neovascularisation associated with central serous chorioretinopathy (see page 1280)

Choroidal neovascularisation was detected using optical coherence tomography angiography in 22.5% of the fellow eyes of patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal neovascularisation in one eye.

Validation of a model for the prediction of retinopathy in persons with type 1 diabetes (see page 1286)

A model aimed at reducing diabetic retinopathy screening frequency was validated in a type 1 diabetes population. The screening interval could safely be reduced by 61% and 21% compared with annual and biennial screening, respectively.

Right-angled vessels in macular telangiectasia type 2 (see page 1289)

In this study, we present the role of right-angled vessels during disease progression from an early stage on, and their association with the development of secondary neovascularisations in patients with macular telangiectasia type 2.

Swept source optical coherence tomography angiography in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine: correlation with morphologic and functional tests (see page 1297)

Swept source optical coherence tomography angiography in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine for more than 5 years may show choroidal thinning and flow abnormalities in the retinal capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris even if BCVA, FAF, mfERG, AVF and SS-OCT are normal.

PCR and culture for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (see page 1302)

PCR has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, whatever the molecular target used for detection or the technology. However, the detection rate can be increased by combining different assays and controlling sample quality.

Genetic analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma-related risk alleles in a Korean population: GLAU-GENDISK study (see page 1307)

The variants near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6 were significantly associated with the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma in Korean population, with the same direction of effect between the discovery association and the replication sample.

Aerosol generation through pars plana vitrectomy (see page 1313)

23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy procedure does not significantly increase aerosols measuring less than 10microns.

Twenty years of International Council of Ophthalmology fellowships: description of the programme and the impact on more than 1100 awardees (see page 1318)

Aiming at enhancing eye care delivery, this study describes how the International Council of Ophthalmology Fellowships Programme was able to promote education with positive impact on the professional career of ophthalmologists, especially from low-resource countries.

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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