Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by non-caseating granulomas. Ocular involvement rate ranges from 30% to 60% among individuals with sarcoidosis, and can vary widely, making the diagnosis a challenge to the ophthalmologist. Cutaneous manifestations occur in about 22% of sarcoidosis cases, but eyelid involvement is rare. Eyelid swelling and nodules are the most frequent forms of eyelid involvement, but other findings have been reported. The joint analysis of clinical history, ancillary exams and compatible biopsy is needed for the diagnosis, as well as the exclusion of other possible conditions. This review aims to describe the different forms of presentations, the clinical reasoning and treatment options for ocular, eyelid and orbital sarcoidosis.
- diagnostic tests/investigation
- eye (globe)
- eye lids
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Contributors MLDC: acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the work; final approval. MHO: conception of the study; acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; critical revision for important intellectual content; final approval. AES: acquisition and interpretation of data; critical revision for important intellectual content; final approval. THO: conception and design of the study; acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; critical revision for important intellectual content; final approval.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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