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Factors predictive of cystoid macular oedema following endothelial keratoplasty: a single-centre review of 2233 cases


Aims To describe the incidence of postoperative cystoid macular oedema (CMO) after endothelial keratoplasty (EK) and to identify its contributory risk factors.

Methods 2233 patients undergoing EK at Ospedali Privati Forlì ‘Villa Igea’, between January 2005 to October 2018 for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and June 2014 to August 2018 for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and quantify contributory risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to determine ideal cut-off points of continuous variables.

Results CMO was identified in 2.82% (n=63) of the cases. CMO occurred in 2.36% of DSAEK eyes and in 5.56% of DMEK eyes (p=0.001). Average onset of CMO was 4.27±6.63 months (range: 1–34 months) postoperatively. Compared with those who did not develop CMO, a higher proportion of patients in the CMO group had diabetes (24.2% vs 9.8%, p<0.001) (OR=3.16, 95% CI: 1.72 to 5.81, p<0.001), a higher proportion of patients who underwent DMEK rather than DSAEK (28.6% vs 14.1%, p=0.001) (OR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.35 to 4.33, p=0.003) and were older (70.5±10.0 vs 67.1±14.3 years, p=0.01). Using the cut-off of 67 years as identified by ROC curve analysis, subjects aged >67 years (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.30 to 4.26, p=0.005) were more likely to develop CMO. There were no other significant differences between the groups.

Conclusions Older age (>67 years), diabetes mellitus and DMEK have been identified as independent risk factors for postoperative CMO following EK. Close observation is necessary during the first postoperative year after EK, particularly in patients with risk factors.

  • cornea
  • treatment surgery

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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