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Associations between visual impairment, incident falls and fall frequency among older Asians: longitudinal findings from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (see page 1590)
Baseline bilateral but not unilateral visual impairment (VI) conferred nearly two-fold higher odds of any incident fall. In those who had fallen at least once, it is of interest that having even mild unilateral VI conferred a substantially greater likelihood of further falls.
Longitudinal associations between self-reported vision impairment and all-cause mortality: a nationally representative cohort study among older Chinese adults (see page 1597)
Nationally representative cohort data showed that both pre-existing and new vision impairment increased all-cause mortality by 22% among older Chinese adults, while vision correction with glasses and cataract surgery reduced mortality by 12%.
Relationship between dry eye symptoms and quality of life: associations and mediation analysis (see page 1606)
The association of dry eye symptoms (DES) with health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) was investigated in this study of 7707 participants. DES were independently associated with poor HRQoL, mediated by reduced visual functioning and experience of recent falls.
Blinking and normal ocular surface in school-age children, and the effects of age and screen time (see page 1613)
Blinking was characterised in situ in children using a wearable eye tracking headset. Blinking was not impacted by age or habitual digital device use. Faster blinking was associated with greater tear volume but not with ocular symptoms. Tear function improved with age, suggesting the ocular surface may continue to develop through childhood.
Association of baseline optical coherence tomography angiography with the development of glaucomatous visual field defects in pre-perimetric glaucoma eyes (see page 1621)
Lower inferior temporal circumpapillary vessel density at baseline is associated with the development of glaucomatous visual field defects in pre-perimetric glaucoma eyes.
Ancillary PanoMap OCT shows the progression of glaucomatous papillomacular bundle defect with disc haemorrhage on the fovea–disc axis (see page 1630)
Temporal disc hemorrhage was found to be associated with progression of the corresponding papillomacular bundle defect in glaucoma.
Choriocapillaris and progressive ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer loss in non-glaucomatous eyes (see page 1638)
We found that choriocapillaris flow deficit percentage is significantly associated with ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness in both cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies detected by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography.
Clinical usefulness of layer-by-layer deviation maps of Spectralis OCT: comparison with Cirrus OCT (see page 1645)
In clinical practice, the layer-by-layer deviation maps of Spectralis OCT, except for the inner plexiform layer, can be used for evaluating pre-perimetric glaucoma and early glaucoma with good diagnostic abilities, comparable to Cirrus OCT.
Association of macular OCT and OCTA parameters with visual acuity in glaucoma (see page 1652)
In moderate-advanced glaucoma, some macular parameters from both OCT and OCTA showed association with VA and modest ability to discriminate glaucoma eyes with decreased VA.
Smoking and progressive retinal nerve fibre layer thinning in glaucoma (see page 1658)
Faster retinal nerve fibre layer thinning was observed in primary open-angle glaucoma patients with high smoking intensity.
Parapapillary gamma zone associated with increased peripapillary scleral bowing: the Beijing Eye Study 2011 (see page 1665)
In individuals without optic neuropathy and retinopathy, the presence of gamma zone was associated with the backward bowing of the peripapillary sclera, while its location was spatially related with the peripapillary scleral bowing.
In vivo assessment of associations between photoreceptors structure and macular perfusion in type 1 diabetes (see page 1672)
Our study showed that type 1 diabetes, non-proliferative retinopathy eyes were characterised by choriocapillaris insufficiency accompanied by photoreceptor damage in the earliest stages.
Biphasic change in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness from 30 to 60 weeks postmenstrual age in preterm infants (see page 1680)
Our prospective study of 101 preterm infants found that the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness increased before (1.8 µm/week) and decreased after (−0.3 µm/week) 37.8 weeks postmenstrual age. This gives information on optic nerve development.
Risks of posterior segment ocular ischemic events in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan (see page 1687)
Ocular ischaemic events are devastating complications in many eyes. From our population-based study, they were highly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Several systemic comorbidities and the dose of steroid used were found to be associated risk factors.
Persistent subfoveal fluid in pneumatic retinopexy versus pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: post hoc analysis of the pivot randomised trial (see page 1693)
This post hoc analysis of en face optical coherence tomography from the PIVOT randomised trial found no significant difference in the risk of persistent subfoveal fluid following pneumatic retinopexy vs vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
Occult anterior uveal melanomas presenting as extrascleral extension (see page 1698)
Occult uveal melanomas present with extrascleral extension. High-frequency ultrasound imaging detected minimal uveal thickening. Subsequent biopsy and scleral patch graft followed by palladium-103 plaque brachytherapy resulted in local control without metastasis.
Laser speckle contrast imaging enables perfusion monitoring of the anterior segment during strabismus surgery: a study on the horizontal rectus muscles (see page 1704)
This is the first study demonstrating that perfusion in the anterior segment can be monitored non-invasively and in real time during strabismus surgery on the horizontal rectus muscles.
Control of myopia using diffusion optics spectacle lenses: 12-month results of a randomised controlled, efficacy and safety study (cypress) (see page 1709)
12 month data from the CYPRESS study indicate that Diffusion Optics Technology spectacle lenses significantly slowed myopia progression in children compared to standard lenses, supporting the hypothesis that high retinal contrast signals the eye to grow.
Non-invasive intracranial pressure estimation using ultrasonographic measurement of area of optic nerve subarachnoid space (see page 1716)
Our study developed a noninvasive method for measuring the area of optic nerve subarachnoid space by ultrasonography for rapid quantification of the intracranial pressure at the patient's bedside, with an accurate mathematical formula.
Ensemble neural network model for detecting thyroid eye disease using external photographs (see page 1722)
A novel deep learning model designed to detect thyroid eye disease from external photographs performs with accuracy and sensitivity at a level comparable to practicing ophthalmologists.
13q32.1 as a candidate region for physiological anisocoria (see page 1730)
Physiological anisocoria, an asymmetry of pupil size in the absence of pathology, is associated with a local region of chromosome 13q32 that has previously been found to be associated with developmental abnormalities of the pupil dilator muscle.
Intraretinal pigmented cells in retinal degenerative disease (see page 1736)
Invasion of the retina by pigmented cells may occur in several diseases. Immunohistochemistry analysis of postmortem human tissue indicates that these cells are RPE-derived and that not all invading cells are pigmented.
Succinic acid exacerbates experimental autoimmune uveitis by stimulating neutrophil extracellular traps formation via SUCNR1 receptor (see page 1744)
Succinic acid exacebated mouse ocular inflammation by upregulation of NETs generation and frequencies of Th1/Th17 cells, in association with increased production of IFN-γ/IL-17A through the succinic acid-SUCNR1 axis.
Heterozygous variants c.781G>A and c.1066dup of serine protease 56 cause familial nanophthalmos by impairing serine-type endopeptidase activity (see page 1750)
Heterozygous variants, c.781G>A and c.1066dup of the PRSS56 gene, were identified in nanophthalmos patients. The mutations were shown to affect serine-type endopeptidase activity, subcellular localization and cellular migration ability. Together, these changes may contribute to the development of nanophthalmos.
Correlation of ex vivo and in vivo confocal microscopy imaging of acanthamoeba (see page 1757)
Ex vivo confocal microscopy imaging of porcine corneas inoculated with the various life cycle stages of Acanthamoeba can be used as a reference to identify similar structures seen on in vivo imaging in Acanthamoeba keratitis in patients.
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