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  1. Frank Larkin, Editor in chief
  1. Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Frank Larkin, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; f.larkin{at}

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of periorbital squamous cell carcinoma (see page 320)

Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy demonstrates a high level of efficacy in treatment of locally advanced periorbital cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and should be considered in the multidisciplinary management of such lesions

Intraepithelial growth pattern for eyelid sebaceous carcinoma: a cohort of 214 patients from a single institution (see page 324)

Intraepithelial invasion is present in nearly one third of eyelid sebaceous carcinoma. Pagetoid invasion, the predominant pattern, increases the risk of tumour-related mortality, while Bowenoid and papillary pattern do not alter local recurrence, metastasis and mortality.

Differences in characteristics, aetiologies, isolated pathogens, and the efficacy of antibiotics in adult patients with preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis between 2000–2009 and 2010–2019 (see page 331)

In our study, the increasing trend of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was compatible with reduced efficacy of penicillin-derived antibacterials. Results of antibiotic efficacy against commonly identified bacteria offers empirical choices in periorbital infection prior to obtaining culture results.

Time trends and heterogeneity in the disease burden of trachoma, 1990-2019: a global analysis (see page 337)

The global total of disability-adjusted life years due to trachoma decreased by 37% from 1990 to 2019. Country-level disease burden due to trachoma was inversely associated with Human Development Index, Socio-Demographic Index and expected years of schooling.

Management of limbal stem cell deficiency by amnion-assisted conjunctival epithelial redirection (Acer) using vacuum dried amniotic membrane and fibrin glue (see page 342)

Use of vacuum dried amniotic membrane (AM) in amnion-assisted conjunctival epithelial redirection technique is a useful alternative to frozen AM and has advantages of transparency, off-the-shelf availability and storage at room temperature.

Anterior segment biometric measurements explain mis-classifications by a deep learning classifier for detecting gonioscopic angle closure (see page 349)

Biometric measurements help explain mis-classifications by an OCT-based deep learning classifier for detecting gonioscopic angle closure and can be used to develop statistical models that adjust classifier predictions and improve overall performance.

Intermediate-term outcomes of the Aurolab aqueous drainage implant in neovascular glaucoma (see page 355)

Aurolab aqueous drainage implant surgery failed at 2 years follow-up in a third of eyes with neovascular glaucoma, with no difference in failure rates between the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion groups.

Relationship between vision impairment and employment (see page 361)

Visual impairment was associated with unemployment and underemployment in a longitudinal population-based cohort. Future studies should explore whether vision screening and access to refractive correction improve employment outcomes in the ageing workforce.

Clinical and genetic features of retinoschisis in 120 families with RS1 mutations (see page 367)

Almost all rare RS1 variants were potential pathogenic. Bullous retinoschisis is a common subtype of XLRS in Chinese cohort, which may spontaneously regress in some cases.

Primary and secondary focal choroidal excavation morphologic phenotypes, associated ocular disorders, and prognostic implications (see page 373)

Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) can be associated with numerous conditions, or as primary entities. We classify FCE into three distinct types based on morphology and associations to help determine their longitudinal prognostic implications.

Effects of fetal haemoglobin on systemic oxygenation in preterm infants and the development of retinopathy of prematurity PacIFiHER report No. 2 (see page 380)

Low fetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels correlated with poor oxygenation indices and associated with an increased risk for developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Oxygen saturation goals to prevent ROP may need to consider the amount of foetal and adult haemoglobin.

Biosimilar SB11 versus reference ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 1-year phase III randomised clinical trial outcomes (see page 384)

Longer-term data support the comparable efficacy, safety, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetics profile between SB11 and reference ranibizumab in participants with nAMD, supporting its use as a safe and effective ranibizumab biosimilar.

Six-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration and correlation to OCT-derived drusen volume measurements in a Chinese population (see page 392)

The six-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration and correlated OCT-derived drusen volume measurement change is low among a Chinese population. The correlation between OCT-derived measures of drusen load and colour fundus photo grading is poor.

Morphologic characteristics of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and good long-term visual outcomes after anti-VEGF therapy (see page 399)

A thicker pigment epithelial detachment and thinner subretinal hyperreflective material are associated with the best long-term outcomes after anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular AMD. These findings may assist in selecting the optimal target anatomic endpoint after therapy.

Incidence and mortality of uveal melanoma in Australia (1982 to 2014) (see page 406)

Our study found that although treatment for primary uveal melanoma has improved in the last 30 years, overall survival has not changed significantly in Australia in this period.

Presumed incipient choroidal melanoma: proposed diagnostic criteria and management (see page 412)

Nine consecutive presumed incipient choroidal melanomas, diagnosed based on fast relative tumour growth rate and doubling time typical of uveal melanoma, were controlled with transpupillary thermotherapy, most likely before they had the capacity to metastasise.

Evaluation of blood vessel network formation and visual field defect in optic disk melanocytoma (see page 418)

The area of blood vessel network absence detected on optical coherence tomography angiography, but not the tumour area, was significantly associated with visual field defect in patients with optic disk melanocytoma.

Therapeutic effect of modified double-dose photodynamic therapy in circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (see page 425)

Modified double-dose photodynamic therapy is safe and practical treatment in circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with significant regression of tumour and potentially better management of subretinal fluid compared with standard-dose photodynamic therapy.

Self-reported cataract surgery and 10-year all-cause and cause-specific mortality: findings from the National health and nutrition examination survey (see page 430)

In this prospective cohort study of 14 918 participants, self-reported cataract surgery was associated with a 13% higher risk of all-cause mortality and a 36% higher risk of vascular disease-related mortality.

Burden of near vision loss in China: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019 (see page 436)

In the past 30 years, the prevalence and DALYs rate due to near vision loss in China rose by 98.4% and 98.5%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those of developd countries.

New insights into change of lens proteins’ stability with ageing under physiological conditions (see page 442)

Uncle-Unchained Labs is a specific and optimal instrument for investigating stability of lens proteins under physiological conditions. This is the first study to determine the structural stability and decrease in solubility of rabbit lens proteins with ageing.

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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