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  1. Frank Larkin, Editor in chief
  1. Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Prof Frank Larkin, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London EC1V 2PD, UK; dfplarkin{at}

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Microsporidia induced stromal keratitis; a new cause of presumed immune stromal (interstitial) keratitis (see page 607)

Immune stromal keratitis/Interstitial keratitis is an underreported cause of corneal blindness, and is treated presumptively for HSV and various other aetiologies. The authors report cases of inflammatory stromal keratitis, associated with microsporidia in the epithelium, and responding to topical steroids

Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area decreases with age and predicts pterygium onset (see page 614)

Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence area, a marker of ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure, declined over an 8 year period in a young adult cohort. Deep learning models can be used for segmentation and measurement of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluoresent areas

Histopathology-guided management of ocular surface squamous neoplasia with corneal stromal or scleral invasion using ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy (see page 621)

Scleral invasion is an important reason for recurrence in ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). In this study, the authors use ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy to manage scleral invasion in OSSN and describe its outcomes.

Automated histopathological evaluation of pterygium using artificial intelligence (see page 627)

The two main contributions of this paper are (i) the development of a segmentation framework based on underlying statistics, and (ii) the demonstration of the fidelity of the quantitative grading method.

A universal architecture of corneal segmental tomography biomarkers for artificial intelligence-driven diagnosis of early keratoconus (see page 635)

A universal architecture of segmental tomography was developed, which linked stroma, epithelium and curvature of the human cornea, for an efficient identification of keratoconus in different stages of the disease.

Progression of myopia in teenagers and adults: a nationwide longitudinal study of a prevalent cohort (see page 644)

In this study of 630 487 myopic adults and teenagers, significant annual myopia progression was observed in over 13% of those in their late teens and over 6% in their late 20s.

Macular and submacular choroidal microvasculature in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and high myopia (see page 650)

Assessment of the capillary density in the outer ring of the superficial capillary plexus may facilitate the diagnosis of glaucoma in highly myopic eyes.

Long-term reproducibility of optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy, and stable glaucomatous eyes (see page 657)

OCTA-measured vascular parameters have good long-term reproducibility, supporting the use of this instrument for monitoring of glaucoma.

Handheld chromatic pupillometry can accurately and rapidly reveal functional loss in glaucoma (see page 663)

Glaucoma detection and treatment are critical for preserving vision. The authors’ clinic-based study shows that handheld chromatic pupillometry can objectively, quickly, and accurately reveal functional loss in eyes with glaucoma of different degrees of severity.

Primary slow-coagulation transscleral cyclophotocoagulation laser treatment for medically recalcitrant neovascular glaucoma (see page 671)

In patients with medically untreated neovascular glaucoma, transscleral cyclophotocoagulation utilising slow-coagulation parameters as a primary glaucoma procedure resulted in intraocular pressure reduction and minimal associated complications

Prevalence, ethnic differences and risk factors of primary angle closure glaucoma in a multi-ethnic Chinese adult population: The Yunnan Minority Eye Study (see page 677)

This study indicated that ethnicity is a significant risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma in people living in a multi-ethnic region of China.

Prevalence rates of cataract and cataract surgery in elderly Chinese people living in suburban Shanghai: The Pujiang Cataract Cohort Study (see page 683)

This is the first cross-sectional population-based survey of cataract prevalence in suburban Shanghai. The prevalence of cataract was relatively high, and the rate of cataract surgery is still relatively low in this region.

Gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy is an effective surgical treatment for uveitic glaucoma (see page 690)

In 33 eyes with uveitic glaucoma (UG) who underwent gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT), surgical success was achieved in 71.8%. This microinvasive conjunctival-sparing procedure should be considered as an effective intervention early in UG management.

Analysis of the pachychoroid phenotype in an Asian population: methodology and baseline study population characteristics (see page 698)

The pachychoroid spectrum comprises several conditions which share common choroidal disturbance, including pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE), central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV). The pattern and risk factors for development of neovascular complications is poorly understood. This prospective study evaluated the evolution between PPE, CSC and PNV. In this report, the authors describe the baseline characteristics and evaluate the association between ocular and systemic risk factors with each of these disorders.

Evaluation of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness as a possible measure of diabetic retinal neurodegeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study (see page 705)

Our study showed that both diabetes and increasing HbA1c levels were independently associated with thinner superior and inferior pRNFL thickness measurements, after controlling for ocular and systemic confounders including glaucoma.

Nationwide inventory on retinopathy of prematurity screening in the Netherlands (see page 712)

In 2017, the number of Dutch infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity had doubled since 2009. Successful implementation of the new national guideline, including risk-based screening criteria, led to a nearly one-third reduction in screened infants.

Temporal trends in the epidemiology of childhood severe visual impairment and blindness in the UK (see page 717)

By comparing two national surveillance studies, we report broadly stable incidence with a concomitant decrease in associated mortality since the millennium. Childhood visual disability represents an increasingly complex population at risk, with persisting inequalities.

Worldwide outcomes of nasal transposition of the split lateral rectus muscle for strabismus associated with 3rd-nerve palsy (see page 725)

Nasal transposition of the split lateral rectus realigns the eye in ~70% of patients with third-nerve palsy. Simultaneous superior oblique tenotomy increases success; transposition of the split lateral rectus muscle >4.25 mm from medial rectus increases risk of complications.

Determining posterior vitreous structure by analysis of images obtained by AI-based 3D segmentation and ultra-widefield OCT (see page 732)

AI-based segmentation of the vitreous of swept-source optical coherence tomography images clearly visualised the three-dimensional structure of the vitreous fluid including the posterior precortical vitreous pockets, Cloquet’s canal, and cisterns.

Longitudinal associations of ocular biometric parameters with onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (see page 738)

In this prospective longitudinal cohort of 1,370 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, a longer axial length and a larger axial length-to-corneal radius ratio predicted reduced risks of incident diabetic retinopathy.

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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