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Quantitative evaluation of retinal and choroidal vascularity and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with myopic anisometropia by CDI and OCTA
  1. Fang Liu1,2,3,
  2. Lingling Niu1,2,3,
  3. Jie Guo1,2,4,
  4. Weijun Jian1,2,3,
  5. Jianmin Shang1,2,3,
  6. Jing Zhao1,2,3,
  7. Kang Xue1,2,4,
  8. Xingtao Zhou1,2,3
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye and Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  2. 2 NHC Key Laboratory of Myopia (Fudan University), Key Laboratory of Myopia, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanghai, China
  3. 3 Shanghai Research Center of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  4. 4 Department of Ophthalmology and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Eye and Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Xingtao Zhou, Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Fudan University Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, Shanghai, China; doctzhouxingtao{at}


Aims To investigate the association between the myopic severity and retinal microvascular density, choroidal vascularity and retrobulbar blood flow in adult anisomyopes.

Methods This study comprised 90 eyes of 45 myopic anisomyopes who were recruited for Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The superficial vessel density (SVD), deep vessel density (DVD), choroidal thickness (ChT) and choroidal vascularity, including total choroidal area (TCA), luminal area (LA), stromal area (SA) and Choroidal Vascularity Index (CVI), were measured using OCTA. Moreover, the Pulsatile Index, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of posterior ciliary artery (PCA), central retinal artery (CRA) and ophthalmic artery (OA) were quantified by CDI, and all parameters were compared between two eyes and the correlations among parameters were analysed.

Results The mean difference of spherical equivalent (SE) and axial lengths (AL) between eyes were −6.00±2.94 D and 2.48±1.31 mm, respectively. The SVD, DVD, ChT, TCA, LA, SA and CVI were significantly lower in more myopic eyes compared with the contralateral eyes. In more myopic eyes, CDI parameters of CRA and PSV and EDV of PCA were also significantly lower. After adjusting for age and sex, the binocular asymmetry in LA and ChT was independent risk factor affecting interocular difference in both AL and SE.

Conclusion Retinal microvascular density, choroidal vascularity and retrobulbar blood flow were simultaneously lower in adult myopic anisomyopes with more myopic eyes and disturbed choroid circulation was related to the severity of myopia. Further longitudinal study was helped to identify the effect of choroidal parameters for myopic progression.

  • Retina
  • Choroid
  • Imaging

Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no datasets generated and/or analysed for this study.

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Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no datasets generated and/or analysed for this study.

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  • FL and LN are joint first authors.

  • KX and XZ contributed equally.

  • FL and LN contributed equally.

  • Contributors Conceptualisation: FL and XZ had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. FL, LN and XZ. Methodology: FL, LN and KX. Material preparation, data collection and analysis: FL, JG, WJ, JS and JZ. Software and validation, and writing the manuscript: FL and LN. Critical revision of the manuscript: FL, KX and XZ. Funding acquisition and supervision: XZ.

  • Funding This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 81770955), joint research project of new frontier technology in municipal hospitals (grant number: SHDC12018103), project of Shanghai Science and Technology (grant number: 20410710100), Clinical Research Plan of SHDC (grant number: SHDC2020CR1043B), project of Shanghai Xuhui District Science and Technology (grant number: 2020–015) and Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning (grant number: 202040285).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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