Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Choriocapillaris flow deficit and the risk of referable diabetic retinopathy: a longitudinal SS-OCTA study


Aims To investigate the association between the choriocapillaris flow deficit percentage (CC FD%) and the 1-year incidence of referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR) in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods This prospective cohort study included participants with type 2 DM. The DR status was graded based on the ETDRS-7 photography. The CC FD% in the central 1 mm area, inner circle (1.5 mm to 2.5 mm), outer circle (2.5 mm to 5.0 mm) and the entire area in the macular region were measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline CC FD% and 1-year incident RDR.

Results A total of 1222 patients (1222 eyes, mean age: 65.1±7.4 years) with complete baseline and 1-year follow-up data were included. Each 1% increase in baseline CC FD% was significantly associated with a 1.69 times (relative risk 2.69; 95% CI 1.53 to 4.71; p=0.001) higher odds for development of RDR after 1-year follow-up, after adjusting for other confounding factors.

Conclusions A greater baseline CC FD% detected by SS-OCTA reliably predicted higher risks of RDR in participants with type 2 DM. Thus, CC FD% may act as a novel biomarker for predicting the onset and progression of DR.

  • Anatomy
  • Choroid
  • Diagnostic tests/Investigation
  • Epidemiology
  • Imaging

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Linked Articles

  • Highlights from this issue
    Frank Larkin