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Impact of gender on clinical features and outcomes of ocular toxoplasmosis
  1. Matilda R Lyons1,
  2. Tiago Arantes2,
  3. Barbara R Vieira3,
  4. Joao M Furtado3,
  5. Justine R Smith1
  1. 1 College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  2. 2 Sadalla Amin Ghanem Eye Hospital, Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil
  3. 3 Division of Ophthalmology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
  1. Correspondence to Justine R Smith, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; justine.smith{at}


Aim To investigate the effect of gender on the clinical features and outcomes of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Methods 262 patients (139 women and 123 men) presenting to a tertiary referral uveitis service in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, with serological and clinical evidence of ocular toxoplasmosis were prospectively enrolled in an observational study. Predefined data items including demographics, descriptors of uveitis and ocular toxoplasmosis, best-corrected visual acuity and ocular complications were disaggregated by gender and compared statistically.

Results Approximately equal numbers of women and men had active versus inactive ocular toxoplasmosis. In both women and men, most infections were remotely acquired. Men were significantly more likely to present with primary active disease than women (24.4% vs 12.9%); conversely, women were significantly more likely to present with recurrent active disease than men (36.0% vs 28.5%). One toxoplasmic retinal lesion was observed in more eyes of men than eyes of women (50.4% vs 35.3%), while women’s eyes were more likely to have multiple lesions than men’s eyes (54.7% vs 39.8%). Lesions in women’s eyes were significantly more likely to occur at the posterior pole compared with those in men’s eyes (56.1% vs 39.8%). Measures of vision were similar for women and men. There were no significant differences in measures of visual acuity, ocular complications, and occurrence and timing of reactivations between the genders.

Conclusion Ocular toxoplasmosis has equivalent outcomes in women and men, with clinical differences in the form and type of disease, as well as characteristics of the retinal lesion.

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

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Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

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  • JMF and JRS are joint senior authors.

  • X @Joao_M_Furtado

  • JMF and JRS contributed equally.

  • Contributors The study was planned by MRL, JRS and JMF. Data were collected and synthesised by MRL and BRV. Data analyses were performed and display items were prepared by TA. The manuscript was drafted by MRL and JRS, and edited and critically revised by JMF. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. JRS and JMF are joint guarantors of this work.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq:400167/2016-6 to JMF) and the Foundation for Support of Teaching, Research and Assistance of the Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (FAEPA: 1901/2017 to JMF).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.