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  1. Frank Larkin, Editor in Cheif
  1. Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Frank Larkin, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; f.larkin{at}

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Navigation guided transcaruncular orbital optic canal decompression in indirect traumatic optic neuropathy: long term outcomes (see page 779)

No therapeutic modality has an established role in traumatic optic neuropathy. Minimally invasive navigation guided transcaruncular orbital optic canal decompression is reported by the authors to be a promising technique for visual recovery in indirect traumatic optic neuropathy.

Increased incidence of adult gonococcal keratoconjunctivitis at two tertiary eye hospitals in Western Europe: clinical features, complications and antimicrobial susceptibility (see page 788)

A retrospective case series from referral centres in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands between January and July 2023 reports a marked increase in cases of adult gonococcal keratoconjunctivitis when compared to the years 2017-2022. This may be indicative of a change in international incidence more widely.

Prediction of spectacle refraction uncertainties with discrete IOL power steps and manufacturing tolerances according to ISO using a Monte Carlo model (see page 793)

The authors examined the effects of both discrete power steps in implantable lens ranges, which limit surgeons' options, and of lens power labelling tolerances which can introduce stochastic variations in the achieved refraction following refractive surgery.

Association between contrast sensitivity function and structural damage in primary open-angle glaucoma (see page 801)

Characteristic structure-function correlations exist between the macular ganglion cell complex, radial peripapillary capillary and macular vasculature, and contrast sensitivity in glaucoma. The authors' findings support the use of contrast sensitivity as a functional endpoint for glaucoma severity.

Analysis of deep optic nerve head structures with spectral domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography (see page 807)

This study compared the visibility of deep optic nerve head structures using newer generation SD-OCT and SS-OCT. Matched horizontal B-scan images showed better visualisation of the nasal posterior lamina cribrosa insertion using SS-OCT compared to SD-OCT.

Long-term effects of mild cataract extraction versus laser peripheral iridotomy on anterior chamber morphology in primary angle closure suspect eyes (see page 812)

Lens extraction performed better than laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in achieving a wider angle with no residual angle closure, and the parameters remained stable. After LPI, the angle narrowed, and the proportion of residual angle closure increased over time.

Handheld chromatic pupillometry can reliably detect functional glaucomatous damage in eyes with high myopia (see page 818)

High myopia increases glaucoma risk and makes its diagnosis challenging. This study shows that pupillary responses to chromatic lights are unaffected by high myopia and can detect glaucomatous damage in eyes with high myopia.

Adenomas of the ciliary body epithelium: clinics, histopathology and management (see page 826)

Clinicopathological features of adenoma of the pigmented ciliary body epithelium (APCE) and adenoma of the non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium (ANPCE) were similar. Iris invasion was observed in adenoma of the pigmented ciliary body epithelium, which was associated with poor visual prognosis.

Prediction of retinopathy progression using deep learning on retinal images within the Scottish screening programme (see page 833)

The time a patient with referable disease is in this disease state before they are detected and referred is termed the sojourn time. The authors report that use of deep learning to predict progression to referable retinopathy from fundus images leads to screening policies with shorter expected sojourn time than the current screening policy in Scotland.

Feasibility and acceptance of artificial intelligence-based diabetic retinopathy screening in Rwanda (see page 840)

This clinical study on the practical application of using artificial intelligence for diabetic retinopathy detection in Africa demonstrates the feasibility of using artificial intelligence-based screening for diabetic retinopathy in low-resource settings.

Towards the validation of quantitative contrast sensitivity as a clinical endpoint: correlations with vision-related quality of life in bilateral AMD (see page 846)

The authors describe validating quantitative contrast sensitivity as a clinical trial functional endpoint that strongly correlates with vision related-quality of life in age-related macular degeneration.

Comparative assessment of subretinal hyper-reflective material in patients treated with brolucizumab versus aflibercept in HAWK and HARRIER (see page 852)

In post hoc analysis of the HAWK and HARRIER trials, brolucizumab achieved greater reductions from baseline in maximum thickness of subretinal hyper-reflective material (SRHM) compared with aflibercept. Furthermore, SHRM thickness post-loading and thickness variability may be biomarkers for 2-year visual outcomes in patients with nAMD.

Intravitreal panitumumab and myopic macular degeneration (see page 859)

The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor panitumumab, a potential therapy to prevent myopic axial elongation in adult highly myopic patients, was not associated with intraocular or systemic adverse effects when administered intravitreally. This is a new approach to pathological high myopia.

Novel loci for ocular axial length identified through an extreme-phenotype genome-wide association study in Chinese populations (see page 865)

The authors identified two novel loci associated with axial length based on the largest GWAS analysis in the Chinese population, and significant population heterogeneity in myopia genetics. This heterogeneity could partly explain the varying global myopia prevalence.

Pseudomyopia as an independent risk factor for myopia onset: A prospective cohort study among school-aged children (see page 873)

Pseudomyopia is a subtype of excessive accommodation which can be be mistaken for myopic refractive error. Based on a large prospective cohort study, the authors report that children with pseudomyopia were at higher risk of developing myopia.

Prevalence of myopia among children and adolescents aged 6-16 during COVID-19 pandemic: a large-scale cross-sectional study in Tianjin, China (see page 879)

The overall prevalence of myopia among children and adolescents aged 6–16 years in this Chinese region during the pandemic was 54.71%. The regions-standardised prevalence of myopia was increased by age and the highest chain growth rate was 47.99% at 8 years.

Factors influencing myopia stabilization in young myopic adult Singaporeans (see page 884)

Five in six adolescents and young adults had myopia stabilisation with less than 1.00 D of myopia progression over a 10 year period. Male gender and non-Chinese ethnicity are associated with higher likelihood of myopia stabilisation.

Burden of blindness and vision loss in China over the past 30 years: findings and predictions based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (see page 889)

Although blindness/vision loss rates have decreased, China has experienced a rise in the number of prevalent cases and years lived with disability over the past 30 years. Projections indicate further increase by 2030, requiring policies to address this public health challenge.

Retrospective analyses of routine preoperative blood testing in a tertiary eye hospital: could choosing wisely work in China? (see page 897)

A retrospective study of 102 542 ocular patients found high prevalence of abnormalities in routine preoperative blood tests, with differences among 11 subtypes of eye diseases. The Choosing Wisely Campaign, implemented in more than 20 countries, is considered by the authors not practical for eye surgery patients in China.

Implications of LAG3 and CTLA4 immune checkpoints beyond PD-1/PD-L1 as a potential target in determining the prognosis of uveal melanoma patients (see page 903)

This study demonstrated elevated levels of LAG3 along with CD8+expression at the transcriptional and protein levels in tissue and serum samples, and this was associated with reduced metastasis-free survival in patients with high-risk uveal melanoma.

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  • Contributors not applicable.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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