Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Refraction as a basis for screening children for squint and amblyopia.
  1. R. M. Ingram


    +2-00 to +2-75 dioptres of spherical hypermetropia in the more emmetropic of a pair of eyes is significantly associated with esotropia (P less than 0-001) and the presence of amblyopia (P less than 0-01). Anisometropia is not significantly associated with esotropia (P = 0-31) unless there is spherical hypermetropia of +2-00 dioptres or more in the more emmetropic eye (P less than 0-001). Hypermetropic anisometropia of +1-00 DS or +1-00 D.Cyl. is associated with the presence of amblyopia (P less than 0-001). In the absence of esotropia there is also a significant association between the amount of anisometropia and the initial depth of amblyopia (P less than 0-01). The additional presence of esotropia increases the depth of amblyopia further (P less than 0-05) but not the incidence of amblyopia (P greater than 0-30). The level of significance of the association of refractive errors with squint/amblyopia was itself significantly higher (P less than 0-01) than that between a family history of squint or "lazy eye" on the one hand and squint and/or amblyopia on the other hand. 72 +/- 3% of all cases of esotropia and/or amblyopia in this sample of children had a refractive error of +2-00 DS or more spherical hypermetropia in the more emmetropic eye, or +1-00 D. or more spherical or cylindrical anisometropia. Since there is a close association between the refraction and how, when, and whether a child presents with squint and/or amblyopia, it would seem reasonable to reconsider refraction as a basis for screening young children for visual defects.

    Statistics from

    Request Permissions

    If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.