The visual acuity of 4 infants with congenital cataracts was measured serially during the first year of life by a preferential looking technique. Two infants with bilateral cataracts and no measurable acuity before surgery showed rapid development of acuity to normal levels for age after surgery and optical correction. In an infant with a unilateral cataract and an infant with a cataract and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous marked differences in monocular acuities were found after surgery. Acuities became equal in the latter case after occlusion of the normal eye, while the other infant recovered acuity with 'bi-ocular' viewing. These acuity measurements demonstrate the sensitivity of the human visual system to binocular and monouclar visual form deprivation in the first year of life.
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