Article Text

Download PDFPDF

A method for assessing the accuracy of surgical technique in the correction of astigmatism.
  1. S. B. Kaye,
  2. S. H. Campbell,
  3. K. Davey and
  4. A. Patterson
  1. Unit of Ophthalmology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital.


    Surgical results can be assessed as a function of what was aimed for, what was done, and what was achieved. One of the aims of refractive surgery is to reduce astigmatism; the smaller the postoperative astigmatism the better the result. Determination of what was done--that is, the surgical effect, can be calculated from the preoperative and postoperative astigmatism. A simplified formulation is described which facilitates the calculation (magnitude and direction) of this surgical effect. In addition, an expression for surgical accuracy is described, as a function of what was aimed for and what was achieved.

    Statistics from

    Request Permissions

    If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.