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Ophthalmic findings in dyslexic schoolchildren.
  1. M L Latvala,
  2. T T Korhonen,
  3. M Penttinen and
  4. P Laippala
  1. Community Health Center, Ophthalmology Unit, Tampere, Finland.


    The ophthalmic findings of 55 dyslexic 12 to 13-year-old Finnish schoolchildren and 50 age, sex, and social class-matched control children were evaluated. On a neuropsychological basis the children could be divided into six subgroups: general deficiency, general language, visuomotor, naming, mixed, and normal. The two groups did not differ significantly from each other in visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, the amount of phorias and tropias, stereo acuity, fusion, or accommodation. Convergence near point > or = 8 cm was, however, statistically more frequent in the dyslexic group. This finding was also significant in the general deficiency subgroup compared with the other subgroups. The most conspicuous common denominator in those with dyslexia was revealed to be the convergence insufficiency type of exodeviation, occurring in 38% of the general deficiency dyslexic subgroup and in 36% of the visuomotor dyslexic subgroup. This finding suggests a low accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio in these children.

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