Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Screening for abnormal levels of hyperopia in children: a non-cycloplegic method with a hand held refractor
  1. Monique Cordonniera,
  2. Michèle Dramaixb
  1. aOphthalmology Department, Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, bDepartment of biostatistics of the School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  1. M Cordonnier, Service d’ophtalmologie, Hopital Erasme, 808, Route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.


AIMS High hyperopia constitutes the majority of refractive errors in large scale visual screening at preschool ages. The authors aimed to assess the validity of the Retinomax hand held refractor to detect high hyperopia in a refractive screening performed without cycloplegia and carried out on children aged 9–36 months. They considered +1.5 D of manifest hyperopia to be the threshold value and abnormal absolute hyperopia to be above +3.5 D.

METHODS Of the 897 children screened without cycloplegia, 220 were refracted with cycloplegia. The validity of several thresholds of manifest hyperopia was estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves using cycloplegic measures as a reference. The reproducibility of Retinomax measurements was assessed. Normal and quick mode measurements were compared using the Wilcoxon test.

RESULTS The manifest threshold of +1.5 D offered the best combination of sensitivity (70.2%), specificity (94.6%), positive predictive value (78.6%), and negative predictive value (91.9%) to disclose abnormal absolute hyperopia. A good agreement was obtained between the various measurements using Retinomax on the same subject. In the results of this survey, there is no evidence that accommodation is minimised in the normal mode of measurement compared with the quick mode.

CONCLUSION The Retinomax hand held infrared autorefractor is a suitable instrument to diagnose abnormal hyperopia (manifest hyperopia >+1.5 D) in non-cycloplegic refractive screening at preschool ages. It is suggested as the quick mode of measurement as it is more feasible in children (success rate 98.5%).

  • non-cycloplegic refractive screening
  • hyperopia
  • hand held infrared automated refractor
  • Retinomax
View Full Text

Statistics from


    Request Permissions

    If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.