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Indocyanine green angiography of the anterior segment in patients undergoing strabismus surgery
  1. Tin K J Chana,b,
  2. Arthur L Rosenbauma,
  3. Rajesh Raoa,
  4. Steven D Schwartza,
  5. Pauline Santiagoa,
  6. Dennis Thayera
  1. aDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  1. Arthur Rosenbaum, MD, Jules Stein Eye Institute, 100 Stein Plaza, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7002, USArosenbaum{at}


BACKGROUND Anterior segment imaging using fluorescein angiography is only suitable in lightly pigmented irides as the brown pigmentation of the iris masks fluorescein transmission. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography has excellent penetration of pigment epithelium and, therefore, has potential application in detecting perfusion changes of dark irides after strabismus surgery.

METHODS A prospective study was conducted on patients older than 15 years undergoing strabismus surgery. A fundus camera was focused on the arteriolar tufts of the pupillary margin and 50 mg of ICG (concentration of 12.5 mg/ml) was given intravenously. Images were then obtained at 1 minute intervals of 5 minutes' duration.

RESULTS 45 patients with a mean age of 54.6 years and a mean follow up period of 8.6 weeks were studied. There were 23 patients in the primary surgery group, 11 in the secondary surgery group, and 11 in the staged group. Iris ICG angiograms were successfully performed in all patients. No persistent filling defect was detected in the primary and secondary horizontal recti surgery groups or in the secondary or staged vertical and combined vertical rectus groups 6–8 weeks postoperatively. 57% of both primary vertical and combined vertical and horizontal groups showed defects in the early postoperative phase. Only three cases demonstrated late perfusion defects in this series.

CONCLUSION ICG can detect iris perfusion changes in dark irides after strabismus surgery. Iris reperfusion was achieved in the majority of the cases.

  • indocyanine green angiography
  • anterior segment
  • strabismus surgery
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