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An in vitro study on the compatibility and precipitation of a combination of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin in human vitreous
  1. M Hui1,
  2. A K H Kwok2,3,
  3. C P Pang2,
  4. S W Cheung1,
  5. R C Y Chan1,
  6. D S C Lam2,
  7. A F B Cheng1
  1. 1Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  3. 3Department of Ophthalmology, The Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  1. Correspondence to: Dr Alvin K H Kwok Department of Ophthalmology, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, 2 Village Road, Happy Valley, Hong Kong; alvinkwokhksh.com

Abstract

Aims: To investigate the precipitation process of a mixture of vancomycin and ciprofloxacin by equilibrium dialysis and its subsequent effect on the level of available free antibiotics.

Methods: Concentrations of vancomycin and ciprofloxacin in an equilibrium dialysis chamber were measured during the equilibrium process by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. Normal saline (NS), balanced salt solution plus (BSS Plus), and vitreous were used separately as the medium of dialysis.

Results: Precipitation of ciprofloxacin occurred on incubation at 37°C. It formed precipitate on its own or when mixed with vancomycin in all the three media of NS, BSS Plus, and vitreous. There was more precipitation at higher initial ciprofloxacin concentrations; at 25.0 mg/l about 75% free drug in BSS Plus was lost after 72 hours. The extent of precipitation was similar in both NS and BSS Plus. In the dialysis chambers, 20 mg/l ciprofloxacin dialysed against 125 mg/l vancomycin was reduced to a concentration about 5.0 mg/l after 168 hours. Precipitation of vancomycin was negligible. Ciprofloxacin precipitated in vitreous at body temperature, irrespective of the presence of vancomycin. Even after precipitation, the resultant concentration of ciprofloxacin was still higher than the MIC90 of the drug against most Gram negative organisms.

Conclusions: Based on this in vitro study, ciprofloxacin precipitated in vitreous at body temperature, irrespective of the presence of vancomycin or the medium for intravitreal injection. The resultant amount of ciprofloxacin was still higher than the MIC90 of the drug against most Gram negative organisms after precipitation. The authors suggest ciprofloxacin in place of ceftazidime when used in combination with vancomycin for treatment of infective endophthalmitis.

  • ciprofloxacin
  • vancomycin
  • precipitation
  • equilibrium dialysis
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Footnotes

  • Financial support: Supported by a block grant, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

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