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Eye growth changes in myopic children in Singapore
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  1. S M Saw1,2,3,5,
  2. W H Chua2,3,
  3. G Gazzard4,
  4. D Koh1,
  5. D T H Tan2,3,5,
  6. R A Stone6
  1. 1Department of Community, Occupational and Family, Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  2. 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
  3. 3Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore
  4. 4Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, and Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK
  5. 5Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  6. 6Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Scheie Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  1. Correspondence to: Seang-Mei Saw Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Republic of Singapore; cofsawsmnus.edu.sg

Abstract

Aims: To assess the longitudinal changes in biometric parameters and associated factors in young myopic children aged 7–9 years followed prospectively in Singapore.

Methods: Children aged 7–9 years from three Singapore schools were invited to participate in the SCORM (Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia) study. Yearly eye examinations involving biometry measures were performed in the schools. Only myopic children (n = 543) with 3 year follow up data were included in this analysis.

Results: The 3 year increases in axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth, and corneal curvature were 0.89 mm, −0.02 mm, −0.01 mm, 0.92 mm, and 0.01 mm, respectively. Children who were younger, female, and who had a parental history of myopia were more likely to have greater increases in axial length. After adjustment for school, age, sex, race, parental myopia and reading in books per week, the age (p<0.001), sex (p = 0.012), and parental myopia (p = 0.027) remained significantly associated with the 3 year change in axial length. Reading in books per week, however, was not associated with axial length change. Children with faster rates of progression of myopia had greater increases in axial length (Pearson correlation coefficient (r) = −0.69) and vitreous chamber depth (r = −0.83).

Conclusions: The 3 year change in axial length of Singapore children aged 7–9 years at baseline was high and greater in younger children, females, and children with a parental history of myopia. Myopia progression was driven largely by vitreous chamber depth increase.

  • CLEERE study, Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error study
  • COMET, Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial
  • SCORM study, Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study
  • axial length
  • epidemiology
  • biometry
  • Singapore
  • vitreous chamber depth
  • children
  • CLEERE study, Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error study
  • COMET, Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial
  • SCORM study, Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study
  • axial length
  • epidemiology
  • biometry
  • Singapore
  • vitreous chamber depth
  • children

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Footnotes

  • Competing interests: none declared

  • Ethical approval: Approval from the Singapore Eye Research Institute ethics committee was granted.