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The development of the Indian vision function questionnaire: questionnaire content
  1. G V S Murthy1,
  2. S K Gupta1,
  3. R D Thulasiraj2,
  4. K Viswanath3,
  5. E M Donoghue4,
  6. A E Fletcher4
  1. 1Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  2. 2Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology, Madurai, India
  3. 3Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital, Hyderabad, India
  4. 4London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to: Professor Astrid E Fletcher Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK;


Aim: To elicit problem statements describing the consequences of vision impairment as a first step towards the development of a vision related quality of life instrument for use in India

Methods: 46 focus groups were conducted in three regions of India. Separate focus groups were held for men and women and according to disease categories: cataract (24), glaucoma (six), diabetic retinopathy or macular degeneration (10), and “mixed low vision” (six). Facilitators followed a topic guide and sessions were audio taped and transcribed. Problem statements were extracted and coded and summarised into major problem domain areas.

Results: Nearly 5000 problem statements, an average of 15 statements per participant, were consolidated into 18 broad domain areas. The most important problem areas accounting for over 50% of all statements were ambulation, household or occupational activities, vision symptoms, and people recognition. A further quarter of statements related to difficulties with eating and drinking, psychological concerns, self care, reading, and watching television. Problem statements were similar across the disease groups, although rankings varied.

Conclusions: The functional and psychological impacts described by visually impaired participants in India are similar to those reported in other population settings although the context and impact of problems vary.

  • IND-VFQ, Indian vision function questionnaire
  • India
  • vision function questionnaire
  • IND-VFQ, Indian vision function questionnaire
  • India
  • vision function questionnaire

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  • Data access and responsibility: Drs GVS Murthy and Dr SK Gupta had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the data analysis.