Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Prevalence of exfoliation syndrome in central Sri Lanka: the Kandy Eye Study
  1. A K Rudkin1,
  2. K Edussuriya2,
  3. S Sennanayake2,
  4. T Senaratne2,
  5. D Selva1,
  6. T R Sullivan3,
  7. R J Casson1
  1. 1
    South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, Adelaide, Australia
  2. 2
    Kandy Centre for Save Sight, Kandy, Sri Lanka
  3. 3
    Discipline of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
  1. Dr A Rudkin, South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, Adelaide, 5000, South Australia, Australia; adam{at}


Aims: To report the prevalence and correlates of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in central, rural Sri Lanka.

Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmic survey of inhabitants 40 years of age and over from villages in the Kandy District was conducted. Selection was randomised using a cluster sampling process. 1721 eligible participants were identified, 1375 participated. A detailed ophthalmic history and examination including ocular biometry was made of each participant.

Results: The prevalence of XFS was estimated to be 1.1% (95% CI 0.5 to 1.5%; 22 eyes). XFS was bilateral in eight subjects, unilateral in six subjects. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between XFS and increasing age (p<0.001), increasing intraocular pressure (odds ratio 1.2; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.27; p<0.001), nuclear cataracts (odds ratio 1.92; 95% CI 1.47 to 2.51; p<0.001), visual impairment (odds ratio 9.72; 95% CI 3.01 to 31.44; p<0.001) and a history of hypertension (odds ratio 3.89; 95% CI 1.14 to 13.16; p = 0.030).

Conclusion: XFS in this Sri Lankan population was associated with advanced age, raised intraocular pressure, nuclear cataracts, hypertension and visual impairment.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding: The Kandy study was supported financially from an unrestricted grant from Pfizer.

  • Competing interests: None.

  • Ethics approval: Ethics approval was provided by the Royal Adelaide Hospital Ethics Committee.

  • Patient consent: Obtained.