Aims: (1) To associate optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns with particular fluorescein angiography (FA) findings in uveitis patients with macular oedema. (2) To investigate the correlation between tomographic features and visual acuity (VA). (3) To determine the impact of OCT patterns on visual improvement over time.
Methods: 129 eyes of 90 patients followed for uveitis with macular oedema and adequate media clarity were consecutively included from February to November 2004. We examined the relationship between VA, the fluorescein angiograms grading and central thickness.
Results: Mean retinal thickness at the central fovea was 357 (SD 128) µm. The mean VA was 0.5 (logMAR). There was agreement between OCT and FA in 112 eyes (86.8%). In eight eyes (6.2%), serous retinal detachment (SRD) was detected on OCT but not on FA. Nine eyes (7%) had perifoveal leakage on FA without macular thickening on OCT. There were three patterns of macular oedema on OCT: diffuse macular oedema (DMO), cystoid macular oedema (CMO) and SRD. CMO was detected in 61 eyes (50.8%), and in 18 of these eyes (15%), CMO was associated with SRD. DMO was detected in 45 eyes (37.5%), and in eight (6.7%) of these eyes, DMO was associated with SRD. SRD without retinal thickening was present in 14 eyes (11%). Epiretinal membrane was detected by OCT in 27 eyes (21%). Six eyes demonstrated vitreomacular traction (4.7%). There was a correlation between VA and central thickness on OCT (r = 0.407, p = 0.000001). Correlation between VA and central thickness is significant in the group with CMO (r = 0.401, p = 0.001) but not significant in the group with DMO. Furthermore, vision recovery was observed in patients with CMO but was limited in patients with DMO. SRD did not have a significant impact on visual recovery, but its presence reduced the correlation between vision and central thickness.
Conclusion: OCT is effective in detection of macular oedema. It allows determination of the distribution of fluid and quantification of retinal thickness particularly in patients with CMO. In these patients, a potential for vision recovery was also identified. DMO was associated with a poor visual prognosis and a poor prognosis for vision recovery. SRD is associated with a high probability of vision recovery when observed alone or underlying CMO eyes. It should be substracted from the central thickness measurement when attempting to correlate central thickness with vision in patients with macular oedema in uveitis.
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